Civil Service and Performance Related Pay essays

Attempts to introduce performance related pay in the civil service took place in the 1980’s and 1990’s in OECD countries. Public administrations began to react in coping with what was called "the fiscal crisis of the State", a way of naming the consequences of the economic crisis originated in mid 1970s. This led many to advocating for a more businesslike approach in public administration operations. Working processes needed to be reviewed and be made more efficient and civil servants needed to produce more and better results. This was at the root of the New Public Management (NPM) doctrine. Before the NPM other developments had taken place, such as the notion of responsiveness to the needs of citizens. Responsiveness was developed mainly in the late 1970’s and the early 1980’s to describe and emphasize the necessity for the public administration to connect better with the real needs of citizens in order to provide better and more suitable public responses to such needs.
Businesslike approaches to public management peaked in OECD countries in the 1990’s, particularly among those members of the British Commonwealth, while former communist countries in Europe were veering out of the old regime and were attempting to create new democratic institutions, including public administrations and civil services. Performance related pay for the reformed civil services was regarded as a sort of panacea by many politicians in the region for stimulating the development of a more professional civil service and more accountable public administrations. Performance appraisal and performance related pay became the most advocated technique by many reformers and consultants in the region and was put in most, if not in all, new civil service Acts.
In Ghana a teacher;s job satisfaction is one of the most essential issues for educational systems around the world. Next to pupils, teachers are the largest, most extensive, crucial and key to…

The Art of Marc Chagall essays

"My name is Marc, my emotional life is sensitive and my purse is empty, but they say I have talent" –Marc Chagall.
I feel that art is subjective to the viewer's perspective. With that being said my perspective of Marc Chagall's art is that it is a feast for the eyes! I was immediately drawn to his painting titled “White Crucifixion in the Norton Mix” (Hood 293). "The White Crucifixion reimagines the single most iconic moment in the mythology of Christianity, and yet makes that reverberant representation a strikingly Jewish phenomenon as well" (Whitfield). This was one of Chagall's most famous paintings and many of his paintings were gathered inspirations from biblical themes reflecting his Jewish heritage. However, this was not all Chagall painted. Different life-changing events played a crucial role on his style of painting, memorable times such as his struggles in Russia, the death of hisfirst wife Bella, and his various encounters with other religions.
Marc Chagall, a Russian, was born in 1887. He was Jewish painter who traveled around the world transferring his many experiences on to canvas. He was born into a poor Hasidic family in Vitebsk, Belarus. Chagall was the oldest of nine children. Chagall began to display his artistic talent while studying at a secular Russian school, and despite his father's disapproval, in 1907 he began studying art with Leon Bakst in St. Petersburg. It was at this time that his distinct style that we recognize today began to emerge. As his paintings began to center on images from his childhood, the focus that would guide his artistic motivation for the rest of his life came to realization. He studied in St. Petersburg before making his way to Paris in 1910.Chagall was in Paris for four years and during that time he painted some of his most famous paintings of the Jewish village, and developed the features that became recognizable trademarks of hi…

Jupiter – Monster of Our Solar System essays

?Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system that named after kings of gods in Roman mythology. Also, ancient Greeks called the Jupiter- Zeus, whom is the king of the Greek pantheon. ("Jupiter, Largest") In early days of 1610, the father of the modern astronomy Galileo, who made itfirst recorded sighting of the Jupiter system, only after 18 months after thefirst telescope was invented ("Jupiter: The").
The day in Jupiter is only 9.9 hours and orbits the Sun in 11.86 years ("Jupiter: The"). It is visible to naked eye and four hundred million miles(~5AU) away from earth. The composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere is similar to that of the sun mostly hydrogen and helium. Moreover, Jupiter acts like miniature solar system. Presence of Jupiter is one very important reason why we have life on Earth, and habitable environment instead of pummeled by so many comets and astroids (;Jupiter: The;). Also, It has an enormous magnetic field and more than sixty moons. Jupiter has the most exotic weather patterns we have ever discovered in the solar system. Finally, Jupiter’s four largest moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.These four moons are known today as the Galilean satellites.
Formation of Jupiter is greatest misery associated with its formation as a planet. Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system, more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined ("Jupiter, Largest"). Some believe Jupiter may have been a failed star, like the sun, it has the right ingredients. Jupiter is 84% hydrogen and 14% helium, which are the two lightest and the most abundant elements in the universe ("Jupiter: The"). However, it does not have enough mass to create internal pressure and temperature necessary to have nuclear fusion. If it had been about 80 times more massive, it would have actually become a star instead of a planet ("Jupiter, Largest"). The imme…

Stalin and His Influence on Life in Russia essays

Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union as a virtual dictator between 1928 and 1954. During thefirst ten years of his rule, Stalin introduced dramatic change to the Soviet Union in the areas of industrialization, agriculture, culture and education. While there were some benefits for both the nation and the people with respect to the consequences of his policies on industrialization and education, the impact of his policies regarding agriculture, and culture was overwhelmingly damaging to the Russian people, and consequently, the nation as a whole. Therefore, it can be said that between 1928 and 1938 Stalin had a largely devastating impact on the people, but a less damaging one on the Soviet Union itself.
To a large extent Stalin's transformation of the Soviet Union into a strong industrial nation had a positive effect on the nation. This was required as the Soviet Union was 50 to 100 years behind the world's major industrial powers at that time. Stalin's transformation of the Soviet Union into an industrial nation was achieved through the introduction of a series of five year plans designed to develop the Soviet economy.
Thefirst Five Year Plan was introduced in 1928. This plan required heavy industry such as coal, steel and oil to triple their output. Light industry including furniture, clothes and shoes needed to double their output. To facilitate this increase, electrical production was to increase sixfold. [Brooman, J 1988. p. 10] The enormity of this unrealistic task meant that "The atmosphere of Russia became feverish with effort." [Baker, P, P and Basset, J, J 1988. p. 25] However, by the end of 1932, while failing to meet the required targets, an incredible increase in industrial production was accomplished. The output of oil, for example, increased from 11.7 to 21.4 millions of tonnes, the output of steel increased from 4 to 5.9 millions of tonnes, and the output of coal increased from 35.4 to…

Genesis Chapters One – Four essays

The Book of Genesis is thefirst book in the Bible with the story of creation. God creates the world by speaking into the darkness and forming it into being light, earth, vegetation, and living creatures over the course of six days. After each day passes God states that his works are good. On the sixth day, God creates human in his "own image," and gives human the power to rule over the earth and conquer it. He creates a man out of dust and creates a woman out of the man's rib. God places the two, Adam and Eve, in the Garden of Eden, telling them to procreate and to enjoy his works. The one restriction God gives Adam and Eve is to not eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Adam and Eve eat from the tree and God was displeased, and both Adam and Eve bore three children, Cain, Abel, and Seth. Cain would eventually kill his brother Abel due to jealousy. I intend to prove thefirst four chapters of genesis to be inaccurate and also that the God talked about in Genesis is a false God.
Genesis chapters 1-4 are written by Moses, and tell of the creation of the world to the murder of Abel. The story portrayed by Moses in regards to the creation is believed by all forms of Christianity. Moses says; "And God created the human in his image, in the image of God He created him, male and female He created them" (Lewis, 118). If God created the human in His image, and God is said to be all knowing and perfect, then why aren't not perfect as God is. There is no explanation, nor is there any factual evidence, why or how humans were made in Gods image if God is said to be perfect.
The second chapter of Genesis explains the creation of humans and how they would have power and domination over the earth. God commanded the human, saying "From every fruit of the garden you may surely eat. But from the tree of knowledge, good and evil, you shall not eat, for on the day you eat from it, you are doomed to die…

US Military Barracks and Room Security essays

In this essay, I will explain an unfortunate situation that occurred to me due to being negligent and irresponsible. The way I handled a certain situation also leads me to be speaking about the importance of keeping your items safe inside your barracks room and securing your items. I will be explaining a recent theft that happened to me and how it could have been avoided, had I followed regulations listed in the barracks handbook. Unfortunate things happen when proper measures are not taken. I have witnessedfirsthand what it is like to lose important items because of being careless. In this essay I will also be showing the proper way to secure your items in the barracks and why this is important not only inside of the barracks, but everywhere you go as a Soldier in the US Army. I will not only explain why it is important to secure your belongings in the barracks, and lock your barracks door, but I will also relate this to how it compares to actual moments in the battlefield where you may suffer if you are missing items of value due to lack of accountability for them.
Before I begin to tell you about how important it is to keep your valuable secure and your barracks locked at all times, let me tell you what happened to me to make me realize that I was extremely negligent with my things. One weekend, I was away from my barracks room. I had the key to my barracks on my person at all times, or so I thought. When I came back home, I could not locate my keys anywhere. To my unfortunate luck, I found that I had lost my key. This meant that I was unable to lock my barracks door, leaving my room exposed to apparent harm such as theft. In an unfortunate twist of events, during an inspection of my barracks, someone found out that my door was unlocked. They quickly took advantage of the situation and of my lack of accountability for my belongings and items of high value. All of my electronics and high value items were in plain sight inside my…

Throne of Blood and Macbeth essays

“Throne of Blood” and “Macbeth” have many similarities and differences. These similarities and differences are shown through themes, characters, and plot. The themes are similar because it is light vs dark. The characters are similar because of the supernatural aspect, the insane wives, and the reluctant murder of the King and Lord. Finally, the plot is shown to be similar in the three aspects of the murder of the King and Lord, the rebellion from a high ranking official, and the defeat of the rebels against the odds.
One should be able to see many similarities within the characters of the two stories. Both movies had a supernatural aspect. In “Throne of Blood”, there was a shape-shifting spirit that foretold the future; while in “Macbeth”, there were three witches that also had the ability to see the future. The evil spirit from “Throne of Blood” was there to foretell the future. This was shown when Washizu and Miki are riding through the forest on their way to report to the Lord of Inui's defeat. It foretold that Washizu will become the Lord of the North Garrison and later the Lord and that Miki will become the Captain of the First Fortress and his son will become Lord after Washizu. The viewer sees all these predictions as they come to pass. This shows that the evil spirit really does have the power to foretell the future.
A similar event occurs in “Macbeth”. On MacBeth and Banquo's return to the castle, they meet three witches. The witches told them that MacBeth it to be Thane of Cawdor and later the King of Scotland. They also told Banquo that he would be the father of many generations of Kings. The film only shows Macbeth prophecies coming true, but not Banquo's. This shows that the evil-spirit and the witches from the films are very similar because they're both introduced after the rebellion and are both able to see the future. Another similarity between the movies is the wives of the protagonists. Fir…

Character Analysis – Jake Sully in Avatar essays

After the RDA's unsuccessful attempt to occupy Pandora, Jake Sully and the Na'vi inhabitants forced the humans to go back to their planet. Jake makes his last entry log, explaining that he would permanently stay in his avatar. Returning to the Tree of Souls, the Na'vi allow him to undergo the body transfer, from his human body to his avatar body. With his eyes closed, Jake believes he is in his avatar body and the transfer was successful. When Jake opens his eyes, he is blinded by the bright lights facing him. He tries to move his arms, but they are constricted. He attempts to move his legs, but they are also held down by force. He regains his sight and discovers that he is no longer on Pandora with Neytiri. Jake is in a hospital, strapped down to the bed. Dazed and confused, he attempts to break free from the straps, until he sees Colonel Quaritch from his peripheral. Quaritch and Jake make eye contact and stare at each other for a long minute, until Quartich gives him a smirk. Jake is out of words and does not know what is going on. Quaritch debriefs Jake and tells him that he was cyrogenically frozen. While he was asleep, he was put on a "virtual training program" that tested Jake's loyalty and patriotism for his country, through the Avatar experience.
Obviously, Jake had failed and dishonored his country. Not only did he organize a group that massacred many humans, but he aided a fellow Na'vi in the murder of the Colonel as well. Jake cannot fathom the fact of what had just happened. Quaritch then tells him that since the government has found out about Jake's dangerous and unstable mind, they have decided to give him death by lethal injection. Throughout this whole time, Jake does not say one word. All he thought about was all of his collective memories about Pandora. Two government bodies walk in, wearing white suits. One of them is carrying the lethal injection, and the other is there…

Bridging the Gap in A Passage to India essays

"[T]hey do but widen the gulfs between them by the attempt" (Forster 37). This
gulf was something that every English and Indian person had in common in the book,
“A Passage to India”. The gulf was the cultural separation between the Indians and the
English. According to Forster, even the attempt of closing the cultural gap widened the
gulf. Aziz, a young Indian doctor, believed that he had the ability to row a boat across
the gulf. In the book “A Passage to India”, Aziz learned through his encounters with the
English that the Indians and the English could not yet be friends, contrary to his original
In the beginning of the book, Aziz believed that he could cross the cultural gap
between Indians and the English if he treated the English well. According to Novel guide,
Aziz has "a desire to please." He went to great lengths to make sure that everyone was
comfortable when he took Mrs. Moore and Ms. Quested to the Marabar Caves. "[H]is
honour was involved in their happiness, and any discomfort they had endured would tear
his own soul" (142). Cliffs Notes says that "[h]e is high spirited, fun-loving, and
hospitable to an exaggerated degree. When he is found in error, he is tremendously
sensitive." Aziz was so dedicated to the comfort of his English guests that it would
deeply affect his own soul if they weren't content. Aziz was even concerned when his
guests did not seem to be enthusiastic about having a picnic. "Aziz was terribly worried"
(127). When his guide lost sight of Ms. Quested and was unable to find her, Aziz became
very angry. " 'You should have kept her in sight, it was your duty,' said Aziz severely"
(155). Aziz was on the verge of firing his guide because of that mistake. Aziz wanted
everything to be perfect for his English guests so he could attempt to bridge the cultural
Aziz's dream of closing the cu…

Roles of Women – Freud and Levi Strauss essays

?Question: Write an essay showing how Freud and Levi-Strauss' explanations of the roles and positions of women in kinship structures can be used to examine how female characters (and their actions and relationships) are presented in texts we have studied this semester (Weeks 2- 14). You must discuss TWO or THREE texts and make clear what parts of Freud and Levi-Strauss' theories you are using.
Sigmund Freud and Claude Levi-Strauss explain the roles and positions of women in particular kinship structures and allow their theories to be presented in two apparent texts.
This paper will explore the intention behind Freud's idea of the Oedipus Complex within his theory of Infantile Sexuality. This can be examined through circumstances in his personal life, and also with great relevance to Shakespeare's Hamlet. Following this, a theory, which is further researched by several anthropologists, is Levi-Strauss's Incest Taboo within kinship structure. Through Sophocles' Oedipus the King the significance is greatly seen through the incestuous marriage.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of psychoanalysis. From his reading of literature, among other sources, Freud developed a theory of Infantile Sexuality and within it, the idea of the Oedipus Complex. In Sophocles' Greek tragedy “Oedipus The King”, the hero, who had grown up apart from his parents, unwittingly kills his father and marries his mother. Freud proposed that the potential psychological health of an adult man depended on whether or not he would be able to overcome, and to fully contain the subconscious of two very influential infant desires; to have sex with his mother, and to also to kill his father (Freud 374). According to Freud's theory, mental health in an adult male depended on the ability to resolve the infantile jealousy, which the infant boy had felt for his father's physical relationship with his mother (Freud 273)….