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• The term “low vision” was officially incorporated in the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9) IN 1974.

• The World Health Organisation in its International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) defines ‘Low vision’ as best-corrected visual acuity of worse than 6/18, but equal to or better than 3/60 with near vision of at least N36, or visual field of less than 20 degrees in the better seeing eye.

• WHO Classification of blindness
• Normal • 0 • 6/6- 6/18
• Low Vision • 1 • 50 years) with vision Cumbersome > Social.

3 The Effects of Low-Vision Rehabilitation on Reading Speed and Depression in Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis

• Noura Hamade,1 William G. Hodge,1,2 Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman,1 and Monali S. Malvankar-Mehta .

• Retrospective study

• Compilation from 9 different studies across USA, Canada, China, UK and Italy .

• Studies considering patients aged 55 and older with AMD were included. There were no limits on either the length of follow-up or time since rehabilitation.

• This meta-analysis was conducted to compare reading speed and depression scores in patients with AMD before and after undergoing low-vision rehabilitation. Meta-analysis was done to test the effectiveness of the different low-vision rehabilitation strategies on improving reading speed and depression scores. Nine articles (885 subjects) were included from the vast area of vision rehabilitation for AMD patients.

• Low-vision rehabilitation strategies including teaching program and eccentric viewing training significantly improved reading speed. The maximum improvement in the reading speed was shown by eccentric viewing training program. The overall result showed a significant improvement in reading speed in those who underwent low-vision rehabilitation.

• Forest Plot showing Significant Improvement in Reading Speed in Age Related Macular Degeneration Patients with various Interventions.

• Funnel Plot for Studies Evaluating Depression Score in Age Related Macular Degeneration Patients.

• In conclusion, low-vision rehabilitation may improve reading speed in those with AMD. However, it may not have a significant effect on depression scores in older adults with AMD. High quality research in studying the effect of low vision rehabilitation strategies and depression scores in adults with AMD is required.

4. Effectiveness of low vision services in improving patient quality of life at Aravind Eye Hospital

• Anna T Do, Krishanmurthy Ilango, Dhivya Ramasamy, Suriya Kalidasan, Vijayakumar Balakrishnan, and Robert T Chang1

• The low vision quality of life (LVQOL) questionnaire measures vision-related quality of life through 25 questions on a Likert scale of 0–5 that pertain to (1) mobility, distance vision, and lighting; (2) psychological adjustment; (3) reading and fine work; and (4) activities of daily living. This tool was verbally administered to 55 new low vision referral patients before their first visit at the low vision clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Low vision aids (LVAs) were prescribed at the discretion of the low vision specialist. 1-month later, the same questionnaire was administered.

• About 44 of 55 low vision patients completed baseline and follow-up LVQOL surveys, and 30 normal vision controls matched for age, gender, and education were also surveyed (average 117.34 points). After the low vision clinic visit, the low vision group demonstrated a 8.89-point improvement in quality of life (from 77.77 to 86.66 points)

• Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation.

5. Effect of rehabilitation worker input on visual function outcomes in individuals with low vision: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Jennifer H. Acton, Bablin Molik, Alison Binns, Helen Court, and Tom H. Margrain

• Prospective study done in U.K

• There is one active intervention in the trial, that is, the ROI. In one to eight sessions, a Visual Rehabilitation Officer will conduct home visits to assess the status of the individual with low vision and provide training and support in specific areas of need for a span of 6 months.

• The support is tailored to the individual in a number of areas including mobility, use of low vision aids, household tasks, communication and administrative tasks. Details the types of intervention that may be provided by the Visual Rehabilitation Officer. Not all components are provided to each person, because the ROI is tailored to meet individual requirements . The aim of the rehabilitation is to promote independence by helping individuals learn new skills or regain lost skills and rebuild confidence following sight loss. This support may be implemented by the provision of information, equipment, encouragement, training and/or referral to other agencies. This type of intervention is typical of that provided by Visual Rehabilitation Officers in the UK. Participants will be recruited from South East Wales. The intervention will be provided by a team of two experienced Visual Rehabilitation Officers (each with 7 to 8 years of experience)

• The 48-item Veterans Affairs Low Vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VA LV VFQ-48), a validated one-dimensional functional outcome measure questionnaire that assesses the difficulty in performing daily activities in visually impaired individuals . Secondary outcome measures will include the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), an assessment of depression symptom severity on a nine-item scale, based on criteria for depressive episodes including concentration problems.

• 60 participants. Participants will not be included if they are unable to use a telephone (for example, caused by very poor hearing, unable to understand English, unable to take part in a 6-month study, and unable to provide informed consent). Significant improvement in scores were noted.

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