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1. Explain what genetic engineering is.
Genetic engineering is the process of modifying / manipulating the DNA to alter an organism’s phenotype/characteristics in a particular way. It is to add one or more trait that the organism has not obtained yet. Plants with resistance to some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides, and crops with modified oil content are examples of genetically engineered organisms. Genetic engineering helps change traits of organisms and causes benefits for others but sometimes also limitations. For example, genetic engineering can be used in animals so that they may be able to produce more milk than they are supposed to. Although, genetic engineering sometimes may have some side effects/negativity which will later be stated/talk about below.
2. Describe ; give example(s) on how genetic engineering is used / applied in medicines, agriculture, industries, animals, and environment.
Medicines
According to LumenCandela, “in medicine, genetic engineering has been used to produce insulin, human growth follistim, human albumin, hormones, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines, and many other drugs.” Genetic engineering even helps with the treatment of genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington’s chorea, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Medical scientists are now able to analyze more than 3000 disorders that happened because of an “error” in individuals’ DNAs.
Agriculture
Agriculturally, genetic engineering is used to create genetically-modified crops or genetically-modified organisms. Genetic engineering allows scientists to make crops have traits they did not have before in order to improve crop yield/boost nutritional value. In terms of agriculture, it’s also used to increase crop yields, reduce costs for the production of food/drug, reduce needs for pesticides, increase nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and diseases, greater food security, and lastly, medical benefits to the world’s growing population.
Industries
Industrially, genetic engineering is used in transforming microorganisms such as bacteria or yeast or insect mammalian cells with a gene coding for a useful protein. Most of the protein can be produced by growing the transformed organism in bioreactors by using fermentation, and then purifying the protein. According to enotes, genetic engineering, in industrial applications, also includes in the production of new and better fuels, medicines, products used for cleaning existing pollution, and tools that are used in recovering natural resources.
Animals
By having genetic engineering in animals, it may improve the public health. There are loads of benefits from this such as advanced health in human, enhancing food production, decreasing environmental impact, better animal health and welfare, and manufacture of cutting edge industrial applications. An example of how genetic engineering is used in animals is to produce more milk or it can make animals produce (more) different type of coats so that a wide range of fabrics can be made.
Environment
Environmentally, genetic engineering is used to treat people with diseases/genetic disorders and an example, by creating vaccines. This benefits the environment since it reduces the chance of the spreading of the disease/sickness and keeps the environment healthy. Another one is that plants that are gone through genetic engineering can kill/resist certain parasites. Although, by doing so, there is a possibility of the food chain being ruined.
3. Explain the benefits and limitations.
One of the benefits of Genetic Engineering is that it allows faster growth rate. It quickens maturity in plants and animals. Another benefit of genetic engineering is that it can create an extended life. It can help to create resistance to common forms of organism death such as pest resistance (in plants) which can help plants mature as a crop without any further additives. For animals that have gone through genetic engineering, it helps to reduce risks of common health concerns that may affect the breed/species. This creates the potential of extended lifespan to an organism. Another benefit of genetic engineering is that specific traits can be developed. Specific traits could be developed through genetic engineering that can make the organism more attractive to use/consumption, different colors can be created to produce a wider range. For animals, they can be modified to produce more milk, grow more muscle tissue, or produce different coats so that a wider range of fabrics can be made.
One of the limitations of genetic engineering is that the nutritional value of the food could be less. Although genetic engineering allows faster growth rate, when they mature quickly, the nutritional value of the product can be reduced. Another limitation is that there may be some unexpected side effects to the organism. Of course, genetic engineering is guaranteed to make a change. But, some of the changes may be a negative change. An example is when genetic engineering is used in animals to create more milk than they are supposed to. This may cause a shorter lifespan for the animal and at the same time, the farmers will suffer a greater livestock.
4. Evaluate the relationship between genetic engineering with following factors; social, economical, political, environmental, cultural or ethical. (choose any three of applications in number (2) and three of the factors that have correlation)

Animals (social)
By using genetic engineering in animals, it may benefit the social/public. Genetic engineering can be used in animals for many things, one of them is to produce more milk than they would normally produce. The more milk, the more that people can sell and the more milk we all can drink. Other than that, it can also be used to improve the public health.
Medicines (environmental)
Genetic engineering in medicines can help the environment. Since genetic engineering, example in humans, it can be used to treat genetic disorders or diseases, it can prevent other people from getting diseases. This helps the environment since it will reduce amount of people getting the disease since it will not spread. Another example is that it is used in vaccines which makes people prevent the sickness/disease that they are being vaccine of that helps prevent other people in the environment to get it.
Industries (economical)
As I’ve said before, genetic engineering in industries can be used to transform bacteria/yield/insect mammalian cells with a gene coding for a useful protein. Then, they can help produce new and better fuels, medicines, products used for cleaning existing pollution, and tools that are used in recovering natural resources that can really benefit the economy.
5. Make a conclusion on this topic
Genetic engineering is very beneficial in many ways. It can be used in medicines, agriculture, industries, animals, and environment. Genetic engineering have benefits and limitations too. In animals, genetic engineering can be used to produce different type of coats so that there can be a wider range of fabrics that can be made. This is a benefit since the wide range of fabrics can be sold to people and the seller can make money out of it. In humans, genetic engineering can also be used in treating genetic disorders which is of course, a benefit to us. So, in conclusion, genetic engineering is very beneficial to us.
Bibliography:
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Phillips, T 2008, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and Recombinant DNA Technology, last accessed 22 August 2018, .
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