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-178435top00AMITY UNIVERSITY
123332111743100426466511090200 UTTAR PRADESH
AMITY INSTITUTE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
PROJECT TRAINING ( IN-HOUSE) REPORT – 2018
Reg No. BSM/17/113
PROJECT TITLE : Genetically modified crops
COURSE : B.sc (H) – MBT
SEMESTER : 2nd
NAME OF STUDENT : Mehak kapoor
ENROLLMENT NO. : A0579317016
BATCH : 2017-20
TRAINING PERIOD : 15th may 2018 – 6th July 2018
NAME OF SUPERVISOR : Dr. Anubha Sharma
4193229208559Student
Student
center219590Supervisor
Supervisor
-266700222676Project coordinator
Project coordinator

359618386560INTERNAL GUIDE
INTERNAL GUIDE
880834100707DIRECTOR
DIRECTOR

-43434029019500center303530Amity University Campus, J3-Block, Sector-125, Noida – 201303, Gautam Buddha Nagar, U.P. (INDIA)
Tel.: +91(0) – 120-24392195, 4392000, 2432780-81, Fax: +91(0) – 120-4392295
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: www.amity.edu00Amity University Campus, J3-Block, Sector-125, Noida – 201303, Gautam Buddha Nagar, U.P. (INDIA)
Tel.: +91(0) – 120-24392195, 4392000, 2432780-81, Fax: +91(0) – 120-4392295
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: www.amity.edu

C E R T I F I C A T E
This is to certify that the project report entitled ” Genetically modified crops” submitted to Amity institute of biotechnology, AUUP as a part of curriculum of B.Sc. (Biotechnology) is a bonafide work carried out by Ms. Mehak kapoor of 3rd semester Enrollment No. A0579317016 from 15/05/2018 to 06/07/2018.
No part of this project work has been reproduced elsewhere for any degree od diploma.

left229004Supervisor
00Supervisor

-476885132791Amity University Campus, J3-Block, Sector-125, Noida – 201303, Gautam Buddha Nagar, U.P. (INDIA)
Tel.: +91(0) – 120-24392195, 4392000, 2432780-81, Fax: +91(0) – 120-4392295
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: www.amity.edu
00Amity University Campus, J3-Block, Sector-125, Noida – 201303, Gautam Buddha Nagar, U.P. (INDIA)
Tel.: +91(0) – 120-24392195, 4392000, 2432780-81, Fax: +91(0) – 120-4392295
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: www.amity.edu
-30225111421500
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DECLARATION
I hereby declare that three month training programme on “Genetically modified crops” is a record of original work done by me under the guidance of Mrs. Anubha sharma during the period of 15th may 2018 to 6th July 2018 at Amity Institute Of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, I also declare that no part of this report has been previously submitted to any university or any examining body for acquiring any degree.
PLACE : Noida
DATE : 6th July 2018 ( Mehak kapoor )
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to DR. ANUBHA SHARMA for introducing the present topic and for her inspiring guidance, constructive and valuable suggestion throughout this work. Her able knowledge and expert supervision with unswerving patience fathered my work at every stage, for without her warm affection and encouragement, the fulfilment of the task has been very difficult.

I express my sincere thanks to our Head of the Department; I owe my sincere gratitude and thankfulness to my programme leader Dr. sohini singh for showing sustained interest and providing help throughout the period of my work.
I am genuinely appreciative of all my friends for their suggestions and moral support during my work.
Last, but not the least, I would like to thank almighty GOD and my parents, whose dedicated and untiring efforts towards me has brought at this of my life.
MEHAK KAPOOR
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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
What is a gene ?
What are genetically modified organisms ?
BENEFITS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS
Increased crop yield
Herbicide tolerant and pest resistant
Disease resistant
Drought and salinity tolerant
Pharmaceutical crops
Nutritional added crops
HOW TO GENETICALLY MODIFY A CROP
Isolation of desired gene (gene cloning technology)
Mechanical shearing
Chemical synthesis
Use if restriction endonuclease
Complimentary DNA method
Selection of vector and insertion of a gene
Transfer of r-DNA vector into host cells.

Cohesive technique
Homopolymer chain
Blunt end joining
Co-site
Transformation of r-DNA
By use of CACl2
By use of lysosomal enzymes
By transduction
Identification, isolation and culture of transgenic bacteria
Antibiotic sensitive technique
Direct phenotypic identification
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SOME GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS ARE :
Golden Rice
What is golden rice ?
Does golden rice has same yield as conventional rice ?
Could Golden Rice be bad for the environment or “contaminate” non-GMO rice ?
When will golden rice be available ?
Papaya
What is GM Papaya ?
Building a better papaya
How does it work ?
Pros and cons

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FACULTY GUIDE APPROVAL
This is to certify the NTCC project entitled Genetically modified crops at Amity institute of biotechnology, AUUP is a bonafide work of Ms Mehak kapoor carried out in partial fulfilment for award of Degree under my guidance.

This project is original and not submitted for award of any degree at the institution.

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ABSTRACT
The genetic modification of crop plant from the methodology involved in their production through to the current debate on their use in agriculture are reviewed. Techniques for plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefacien, for the selection of transgenetic plants using marker genes is described. The benefits of currently available genetically modified crop is they increase crop yield, they are herbicide and pest tolerant, disease resistant, drought and salinity tolerant, pharmaceutical crops and nutritional added crops. The legal requirements for containment of novel GM crops and the roles of relevant regulatory bodies in ensuring the GM crops and food are safe and summarized. Finally, the current debate on the use of GM crop in agriculture and the need for the government, scientists and industry to preserve with the technology in the face of widespread hostility is studied.
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INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS A GENE ?
Each living organism on this earth whether it is a plant or animal have structural unit of life called call cell contains nucleus and nucleus contain genetic material called DNA which is inherited from parents of that living being. Genes are made up of short sequences of DNA. Genes regulate themselves at right time and place in order to maintain the process of living organism1.

WHAT ARE GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS ?
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are the organisms the genetic material of which has been modified through unnatural means. This technology helps to transfer selected genes from one life form onto the another life form. This techniques is referred as recombinant DNA technology, this is also been used around many countries of the world for creating GM crops. The new gene will be having desirable traits such as pest resistant, herbicide tolerant, drought resistant and enhanced nutritional value. These desirable genes are novel jeans.
There has been a substantial increase in many countries of the world, especially after the first GM crop was commercialized in 1966. There has also been an increase in trends amongst farmers to grow GM crops and according to the figures of 2007, the number of farmers who are planting GM crops across the world are about 12 million across 23 various countries. The desirable characteristics came from naturally occurring variation in genetic makeup of individual plant and animal, hence this natural selection is the basis of evolution and breeding. Application of genetic modification does not increase or decrease the risk associated with organism. Biotechnology contributed to well-being of hunger is through production of GM cotton which produce large incomes2. Genetically modified plants manifest new traits via expression of novel proteins encoded by inserted transgene. For example, cotton is modified to contain bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene and expressing Bt insecticidal protein in its leaves and bud will left-6236932
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be protected from caterpillar attack. Both the transgene and novel protein in such a plant is genetically modified.
Genetically modified (GM) crops are the predominant GMOs introduced into the environment for food production and in for industrial application too but at lesser degree 3. GM plants used in agriculture are the largest class of GMOs introduced into the environment intentionally. GM crops are grown in varying amounts in select countries, the largest producers of these crops are countries like United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and India. The main traits introduced are herbicide and insecticide tolerance. BENEFITS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
Increased crop yield
It is expected by those in crop production that genetically engineered seeds will increase the yield of farmer who implement technology in fields. Although there is not much research available related to the impact of genetic engineering in increasing crop production, available research supports these expectations. 1997, the Economic Research Service (ERS) found a significant association between improved crop yields and increased adoption of pesticide and herbicide resistant crop seeds (ERS 2000). The ERS study also reported that crop yield increase when farmers use herbicide-tolerant cotton or Bt cotton. Study by Lowa State University reported that Bt crops had higher yield over non Bt crops 4.

Herbicide tolerant and pest resistant crops
center248389300Eradicating weeds in physical ways such as tilling is not cost effective. Farmers often spray large quantities of different herbicide, to destroy weeds, which is an expensive and laborious process involving the alerts so herbicide doesn’t harm the crop and environment. Herbicides work with particular herbicide-tolerant seeds that can kill weeds without causing any negative impact on genetically engineered crops. Herbicide glyphosate commercially sold as roundup (manufactured by the agrichemical company Monsanto) and most of the crops are resistant to it 5. Monsanto has produced a genetically modified soybean strain that is unaffected by left-5781443
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their herbicide product Roundup. Farmers cultivate these soybeans, which now requires only one application of herbicides instead of several applications of herbicides, farmers cultivated dropping production cost and minimizing the hazards of agricultural waste. Other herbicide resistant crops include Calgene’s BXN cotton and Bayer’s Liberty Link corn 6. Crop loss from insects and pests can be surprising, causing an immense economic loss for farmers and food shortages in developing countries, farmers use several types of pesticides to overcome this loss. Due to the several health hazards of pesticides, consumers hesitate to eat food that has been treated with chemicals, also agronomic wastes from extreme use of pesticides and fertilizers contaminate the water supply and cause detrimental effects to the environment. Growing genetically modi?ed crops like Bt corn can reduce the application of chemical pesticides and reduce the cost of crop production. The Bacillus thuringiensis soil bacterium gene designed to resist the European corn borer and numerous cotton bollworms. Disease resistant There are many microorganism such as bacteria, fungi and viruses that causes plant diseases. Researchers worked on several projects to construct genetically modi?ed plants that show resistance to these diseases 7. Fungi cause severe plant diseases such as grey mould, blight, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. Fungal plant diseases are generally coped with the use of chemical fungicides. pathogenic fungi produce various mycotoxins therefore combating yield losses and avoiding fungal infections saves from them. Mycotoxins can affect the immune system and interrupt the hormone balance; a few of them are also carcinogenic. Genetic engineering facilitates means for managing fungal infections by transferring genes from other bacteria or plants encoding enzymes such as glucanase or chitinase. Now these enzymes further break down glucan and chitin, which are vital constituents of fungal cell walls. Few other approaches include provoking a hypersensitive response, also spread of most virus is hypersensitive to response and spread of most viruses is difficult to control. Once an infection is established, no a viral gene encoding the virus coat protein. The plant can now produce this viral protein before the virus infects the plant. Papaya ring spot potyvirus is a severe viral disease of papaya, this disease inhibits photosynthesis in plants left-6109564
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and stunts growth. Genetic engineering proved to be successful in producing virus resistant GM papayas.
Drought and salinity tolerance
Creating drought and salinity tolerant crops was a great task, but improvements were made through a stepwise methodology. Recent inventions in biotechnology conveys a better understanding of the pathways and mechanisms that is involved in it. Developing crops that can resist extensive durations of drought and salinity in soil is going to encourage people to cultivate crops in earlier inhospitable areas 8. Many salt allowed a better understanding of complexity of higher plant. Drought and salt tolerant wheat and barley were made exploiting genetic engineering.

Pharmaceutical Crops
Genetically engineered crops are made up of genes that are bene?cial for pharmaceutical industries. Medicines are often expensive to produce and they require special storage conditions that is not freely accessible in developing countries. Scientists are working to produce edible vaccines in potatoes and tomatoes which will considerably be easier to transport, store, and manage than conventional injectable vaccines. Also ?eld trials for a genetically modified saf?ower variety are done to produce a precursor to human insulin that can be used for diabetes treatment 9.

Nutrition-Added Crops
Various GE crops can modify the nutritional value of a food and therefore are encouraged by biotech industries as a promising solution against diseases, also malnutrition is one of the biggest threats in third-world countries. Underprivileged people are mainly depend on rice as a staple food, however rice does not have suf?cient amount of all required nutrients to prevent malnutrition. In order to increase the nutritional value rice has been genetically modi?ed to contain surplus vitamins and additional minerals in order to increase the nutritional value. Therefore “Golden Rice” is a variety boosted with an organic compound, carotene. These Golden Rice variety has decreased the occurrence of vitamin A deficiency in the world 10. Similarly, genetically engineered soybean and canola oil ensure lesser left-6138555
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polyunsaturated fatty acid content and higher mono-unsaturated fatty acid levels (oleic acid).
TABLE FOR CROPS SHOWING TRAITS WHEN A PARTICULAR SOURSE OF GENE IS INSERTED IN THEM
S.NO CROPS SOURSE OF INSERTED GENE TRAITS
1 corn bacteria, other species of corn resistant to insects
tolerance to herbicides
male corn sterility
alpha amylase expression
increased lysine level for use in animal feed
reduction of yield loss under water limited conditions
2 cotton bacteria tolerance to herbicides
3 soybean bacteria, corn, oats, other species resistant to insects
tolerance to herbicides
high oleic acid soybean oil
resistant to insects
4 Canola Bacteria fertility restoration
male canola sterility
5 Potato Bacteria resistant to insects
potato virus Resistant to potato virus
other species of potato lower level of reducing sugar
lower level of free asparagine
reduce black spot bruising
6 Tomato bacteria, potato delayed softening
bacteria resistant to insects
7 Alfalfa bacteria tolerant to herbicides
8 sugar beet bacteria tolerant to herbicides
9 rice bacteria tolerant to herbicides
10 apple other species of apple reducing browning and bruising
11 papaya viruses resistant to viruses
12 wheat Bacteria tolerant to herbicides
Summary of the FDA’s Inventory of Completed Biotechnology Consultations on Genetically Engineered Foods as of June 30th, 2015. Crops listed in order relative abundance of genetically engineered crop consultations (corn having the most consultations) 11.left-5856786
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HOW TO GENETICALLY MODIFY A CROP ?
Genetic engineering is the process of transfer of a desirable gene from an organism of interest to an organism of choice to obtain the desired product by using the principle of biotechnology.

The process followed is called the r-DNA technology.

To be more precise, the desired substance is produced by transfer of desired gene (DNA) from a parent organism to a different organism.

In most of the cases, the desired organism is human or other organisms of human interest. While the organism of choice is mostly bacteria or yeast12.

But why only bacteria and yeast are chosen ?
Because they can be quickly grown and their life cycle completes in few hours to days. Due to this, we can get the desired product formed in a short time
Also they express the transferred gene to the fullest and we obtain the product very fast.

The process of genetic modification occurs in 5 steps :-
Isolation of desired gene (gene cloning technology)
Selection of vector and insertion of a gene
Transfer of r-DNA vector into host cells.

Identification, isolation of recombinant gene cells
Expression of cloned genes
Before the isolation of the desired gene, the entire gene or DNA from the organism of interest has to be removed. which done by homogenization of tissue or by use of surfactants to break up the cell membrane of the cell of choice.

Once the homogenate is obtained, the separation of entire gene is done by differential or by density based centrifugation.

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To isolate the desired gene, this gene is now subjected to a different method :-
1.Isolation of the desired gene
Here the DNA or gene from an organism is isolated. That is from the whole genome obtained in the previous step, part of DNA coding for the desired protein is isolated. This is a critical task and can be done by four different methods like: 13
Mechanical shearing.

We can shear DNA using mechanical breakage produce random fragments.

Shearing DNA by utilising enzymatic action produces a set of non-random fragments.

Genomic procedures like sequencing, require the shearing of DNA to a set of random DNA fragments.

Heat generated during physical shearing can cause A–T rich regions of DNA to permanently dissociate.

Randomly sheared DNA needs ‘repairing’, typically by incubation, in order to make their termini available for ligation.

Chemical synthesis.

The term DNA synthesis can refer to DNA replication -DNA biosynthesis (in vivo DNA amplification), polymerase chain reaction – enzymatic DNA synthesis (in vitro DNA amplification) or gene synthesis – physically creating artificial gene sequences14.

By use of restriction endonucleases
Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes found in bacteria. These enzymes cut within a molecule. In order to be able to sequence DNA, it is first necessary to cut it into smaller fragments.

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Complimentary DNA method
cDNA is often synthesized from mature (fully spliced) mRNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase. This method synthesizes one complementary strand of DNA hybridized to the original mRNA strand.

The isolated genes are now purified and taken for next step to fix to a vector.

2. Selection of vector:
Vector helps to carry the desired gene into the genome of another organism. We can see that the gene is not destroyed during transfer. Also, the gene will be operational inside the new organism due to vector. These vectors have some specific properties :-
Should be capable of independent multiplication. This is possible if the gene has “Ori gene”
Should have a restriction site i.e. a site where the isolated gene can be fixed using restriction endonuclease. This is also called multiple cloning sites.

Vector should have a gene promoter sequence like a ?-galactosidase gene.

Should have Marker gene which helps to identify transgenic cells15.

Vectors are generally large piece of DNA molecule. There are many types of vectors :
Plasmids
cosmids
Phasmid
Transposons
Bacteriophage (virus)
Yeast
Shuttle vectors
The plasmid is a circular, single-stranded and self-replicable DNA molecule that is present inside bacteria. They help in sexual reproduction of bacteria by transfer of genetic material from one to another. But here they are used to transfer the desired gene.

A bacteriophage is a virus which attacks bacteria and inserts its gene into the bacterial cell for multiplication.
Cosmid is similar to plasmid DNA but can accommodate large DNA pieces.

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Transposons are movable genes which move from one cell to another or plasmid to the nucleus. The size is very small like 1kb to 2kb (1kb =1000nucleotide). This has no “marker gene” and “ori gene.”
Yeast cloning vector are used to transfer the desired gene into fungi. This is similar plasmid with little modification.

Shuttle vector have ori-gene, promoter gene for both bacteria and fungi. So it is two in one type of the process16.

Steps in genetic engineering 17
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3.Transfer of r-DNA
In this step the isolated gene is now transferred into the vector. a is done by any of the four techniques viz.

Cohesive technique : Cohesive ends are formed for joining with the vector. Restriction endonuclease enzyme is used to cut the desired gene and also the plasmids which help to form cohesive ends. These cohesive ends are easily attachable in both plasmid and desired gene.

Homopolymer chain : Polymers are formed at the ends of the gene to fix with a vector.

Blunt end joining : The genes with blunt ends are joined to vector by use of DNA ligase enzyme.

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Cos site : It has 12 nucleotide chains. A vector that contains a gene is transferred into a bacteriophage. The bacteriophage is a virus that attacks bacteria and multiplies. So bacteriophages transfer the desired gene loaded vector18.
4. Transformation of r-DNA
Now here the vector with the tagged desired gene is placed into the organism of interest (bacteria or fungi mostly). This technique can be achieved by creating holes in the bacterial cell wall. For this, we use two methods
By use of CaCl2 : First bacteria and calcium chloride are taken in a Petri dish and cooled to 0-4 degrees. Then rDNA is added and the temperature quickly raises to 42degree. When kept for cooling, the bacterial wall shrinks and when kept for heating instantly, it expands abnormally creating pores in the wall. Through these pores now the loaded virus enters the cell.

For those bacteria which cannot withstand this temperature this technique is not used.

By use of lysosomal enzymes: These lysosomal enzymes destroys bacterial cell wall. So we take this catalytic enzyme in low concentration along with plasmids (vector) and add it to the bacterial culture. Which leads to cracking of cell wall and plasmids enters. At last the enzyme is removed by centrifugation and supernatant discarding.

By transduction: Here desired gene is loaded into cosmid and then it is inserted into an empty capsule of the virus. Now this transformed virus is introduced into a beaker of E-coli. Which leads to the entry of modified virus into E-coli by transduction methods19.

Identification, isolation & culture of transgenic bacteria
After the transformation is done, now we need to identify and isolate those bacteria from culture media which have the vector within.

Few methods are followed for this like :-
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Antibiotic sensitivity technique: This technique is based on replica plating method. Here the bacteria having the desired gene is isolated on to another media. For this technique, we take a solution of bacteria and add it with antibiotic ampicillin. Those with ampicillin resistance gene multiply. While all those without vector do not grow and are inhibited but remaining ones grow into visible colonies.
A cylindrical vessel having a flat bottom with muslin cloth wound is pressed over those colonies. E colonies get fixed to the cloth that touches the surface of fresh media. Thus the bacteria with r-DNA is isolated. These are now grown in culture media in the presence of promoter gene to get the desired product.
The method above is not suitable for yeast and virus. So other immunological techniques are used like nucleic acid hybridization, polymer chain reaction(PCR)20.

Direct phenotypic identification: Here we identify transgenic bacteria based on the newly developed characters.
For example bacteria having ?-lactamase producing gene survive the culture media when they are added with ampicillin while the remaining die.

After isolation, we can culture bacteria by fermentation process to produce the desired product. The culture broth contains all the required nutrients. Also, it contains gene promoters which boost the transgenic gene in the bacteria to get activated and produce the product.
But why do we need a promoter sequence?
Because all the genes in a genetic material do not activate at all the times. So the transgenic gene requires an external stimuli to produce the m-RNA by transcription. This m-RNA which is coded for desired substance is translated.

This is the technique that helps to manufacture many vaccines like hepatitis-B, vitamins like B12, hormones like Insulin, etc.

If this technique would not been found, then we needed to extract them from animals or by other means which was insufficient to market demand. Also, the product obtained might have compatibility problems within the human body as it was from another source. But the product obtained by this technique is an exact copy of the one produced in the body, so it is compatible21.left-65509214
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SOME GM CROPS ARE :-
Golden rice
What is golden rice ?

Golden Rice is ordinary rice that has been genetically engineered to have high levels of beta-carotene, the precursor to vitamin A. Beta-carotene is found in a different types of fruits and vegetables, but rice, which makes up for 80 percent of the daily diet in Asia, contains few micronutrients.

The Golden Rice prototype was developed in the 1990s by European scientists Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer without involving any direct corporate, and was welcomed with much enthusiasm. Potrykus was the cover of Time Magazine in 2000 along with the headline “This Rice could save a million kids a year.” However, the above mentioned didn’t contain high enough levels of beta-carotene to be an effective source of vitamin A.

The company Syngenta worked on developing an improved Golden Rice variety with much higher levels of beta-carotene in 2005 and they decided not to commercialize it in the developed world as there was no market for it. Syngenta continues working over this project with advice and scientific know-how, but has no commercial control over it21.

The present form of Golden Rice contains two transgenes, or qualities from another species. One quality is from corn and the other quality originates from a normally ingested soil left-71074515
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bacterium. These two qualities from two unique sources initiate rice’s metabolic carotenoid pathway, which produces beta-carotene23.

As opposed to this well-known observation, Golden Rice is definitely not a solitary assortment of rice. Some wholesome attributes that have been initially embedded in rice plants utilizing hereditary building were crossed with numerous nearby rice assortments by means of regular reproducing. This implies agriculturists of Philippines, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Vietnam can keep up the upsides of the cultivars they’ve been developing, enhancing by means of ordinary strategies and eating for quite a long time.

Syngenta could in the future choose to commercialize Golden Rice in developed countries, more likely as a substitute for vitamin A pills.

Does Golden Rice have the same yields as conventional rice?
In 2014, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) announced that field trails have been done that demonstrates the most exceptional adaptation of Golden Rice around then, GR2, demonstrated a lower yield contrasted with the regular rice. To make this unmistakable harvests were presented to wind and rain in open, multilocation field preliminaries (MLTs). Results uncovered that while the objective level of beta-carotene in the grain was accomplished, the normal yield was lower than that of practically identical neighbourhood assortments favoured by agriculturists24.
IRRI found an answer and started new rearing projects in 2014 to grow high-yielding forms of Golden Rice.

The outcome of confined field trials (CFTs), that was in action from October 2014 to July 2017, showed no unintended effects of the GR2 variety on their agronomic performance, yield, and grain quality. Moreover, there were no observed improvement in pest and disease reactions. Except for the beta-carotene content in GR2, all other nutritional components of the rice were the same as conventional varieties.

IRRI’s GR2 variety is currently undergoing MLTs to confirm the outcomes from the CFTs.

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Could Golden Rice be bad for the environment or “contaminate” non-GMO rice?

As indicated by an existence sciences inquire about organization in Belgium, Golden Rice’s capability to cross-fertilize other rice assortments has been taken in agreement and contemplated and was observed to be constrained, in light of the fact that rice is ordinarily self-pollinated25.
Numerous assortments of plants create beta-carotene, and their capacity to do as such doesn’t give an upper hand, or impediment, that could influence the survival methods of wild assortments. Research at IRRI and at different organizations have shown that the shot of “quality stream” is low since rice is self-pollinating and rice dust is operational for 3-5 minutes.

When will Golden Rice be available?
Brilliant rice is at present under field preliminaries and is investigated by government controllers in the Philippines and Bangladesh and is required to be popularized to ranchers in these nations in the following couple of years. Vietnam and India and furthermore learning about Golden Rice and could popularize it sooner rather than later26.

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PAPAYA What is GM papaya ?

Papaya ring spot virus
Carica papaya was acquainted with numerous Caribbean islands by the Spanish and different travellers from various piece of Old World. This organic product was presented in Hawaii in the 1800s. The island of Oahu together with Florida, in the end turned into the biggest U.S. exporters of papaya.
Be that as it may, amid 1940s the circumstances changed with the revelation of the papaya ringspot infection (PRSV). Fundamentally, the infection causes chlorosis in the plants, a condition related with powerlessness to create enough chlorophyll. In youthful plants, the infection cause hindered development and on the off chance that it taints grown-up a natural product bearing plants, the papayas created will have ringspots. As per United States Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Centre, it is hard to battle the spread of infection by pursuing the aphids since aphids don’t lean toward for papaya plants much; they just test the plants and proceed onward, couldn’t care less to colonize in the papaya plantations27.

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Due to the quickly spreading infection, agriculturists fled to Hawaii’s Big Island, which, as indicated by Gonsalves, wound up in charge of 95% of papaya creation by the 1970s. The island-bouncing effort, in any case, just figured out how to moderate the spread of PRSV; the infection showed up in Puna, the last substantial papaya developing area in 1992, and by 1995 the business was in emergency, with stream down impacts that undermined the economy of Hawaii all in all.

Building a better papaya
In starting in 1985, gonsalves began take a shot at a hereditarily designed rendition of papaya with the idea known as pathogen-determined obstruction. as indicated by Gonsalves, this approach essentially expresses that plants that contain quality of pathogen are secured against horrible impacts of the same or nearly related pathogens. Gonsalves and his group kept and sequenced the quality which coded for the protein layer of prsv and brought it into callus cells from the dusk papaya plant, which eventually brought about a safe plant line that was effectively field-tried in 1991. the outcome was sunup, the principal hereditarily designed business assortment of papaya. After some time SunUp was crossed with the non-GMO Kapoho Solo to make the Rainbow cultivar. Both SunUp and Rainbow before long passed administrative testing by the U.S. government and were authoritatively discharged to ranchers in 1998. Rainbow in this manner passed Japanese administrative testing in 2011 and is at present being sent out to Japan28.

How does it works ?
Inserting a single gene from the ring spot virus into papaya DNA made papaya resistant to the virus. Lets take a look now how papaya is genetically engineered….

Various steps are :-
STEP-1 : Scientist identify a gene from the virus that could give the papaya resistance.
STEP-2 : enzyme ( protein that can control chemical reaction ) were used to cut down the gene out of virus DNA at specific point. 3
STEP-3 : the viral gene was copied.
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STEP-4 : A gene package was created by adding other DNA to both ends to viral gene. This DNA is important for turning the gene on. A marker gene was also added to show if the viral gene was inserted successfully.
STEP-5 : Microscopic gold pellets were coated with virus gene package and shot into papaya cell using an early version of the gene gun.
STEP-6 : The papaya cells were grown into plant and checked to see if they could resist the virus. The plant did show resistance and grew healthy and strong 29.

Currently 80% of the papaya grown in papaya are genetically engineered.
PROS :-
1.Crop resistant
2.Increased security for papaya farmers
3.New variant of the papaya crop
CONS :-
1.Unknown health hazards30
2.Pollen of GM strains but fertilize neighbouring organic strain of papaya plant therefore rendering them non organic
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REFRENCE :-
1. https://responsibletechnology.org/gmo-education/the-ge-process/
2. James C (2001). Global review of commercialized transgenic crops 2001, ISAAA Brief No.
3. Huang, J., S. D. Rozelle, C. E. Pray and Q. Wang. 2002. ?Plant Biotechnology in China.? Science, 295(January 25): 674–77.

4. Lee, M. (2009). EU Regulation of GMOs. Law and Decision Making for a New Technology. Biotechnology Regulation Series (Massachusetts, Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.), 274.

5. IAASTD (International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge Science and Technology for Development), ed. (2009b). Agriculture at Crossroad. Global Report (Washington D.C., Island Press), 590.
6. Heinemann, J.A. (2009a). Hope not Hype. The future of agriculture as guided by the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (Penang, TWN), 160.

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