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2.2. Equivalence analysis of idioms with core component “????” in Ukrainian and “HAND” in English

2.2.1. Absolute equivalence
From hand to hand ?? ??? ? ????
Prep + HAND + prep + HAND Prep + ??? + prep + ????
These idioms mean from one person to a series of other persons, consist of the same lexical means and are syntactically identical. Both idioms can be considered as absolutely equivalent.

To ask (someone’s) hand ??????? (??????) ????
V + HAND V + ????
The same can be said about the next pair of idioms, both meaning to request permission to marry someone, as from their father or family.

(One’s) life is in (someone’s) hands (?????) ????? (?) ? (???????) ?????
N + V + prep + HANDS N + V + prep + ?????
The syntactic structures of these idioms correspond as well as their lexical meaning someone is responsible for what happens to someone or for whether he\she lives or dies.
Eat out of (someone’s) hand ???? ? (???????) ???
V + prep + HAND V + prep + ???
This pair of idioms meaning to be manipulated or dominated by another, be submissive is also an example of absolute equivalence on syntactic and lexical levels, as well as the next pair, which means be uninvolved and blameless with regard to an immoral act.

To have clean hands ???? ????? ????
V + Adj + HANDS V + Adj + ????

A firm hand
A heavy hand ?????? ????
????? ????
Adj + HAND Adj + ????
Ukrainian and English idioms meaning strict discipline or control and tyranny, persecution, or oppression are also absolutely equal; however the attention should be paid to Adjectives in Ukrainian version, because of gender aspects of the language.

By hand ??? ????
Prep + HAND Prep + ????
Despite the different preposition used in Ukrainian idiom (by – ???) both idioms can be considered as absolutely equivalent, meaning by a person and not a machine.

Count on the fingers of (one) hand ?????????? ?? ??????? (??????) ????
V + prep + N + prep + HAND V + prep + N + ????
Although preposition of is used only in the English idiom, because Ukrainian language is characterized by cases, this pair of idioms can be sorted out as absolutely equivalent. They mean that something does not happen very often or exists in very small numbers.

Hand on heart ???????? ???? ?? ?????
HAND + prep + N Participle+ ???? + prep + N
Participle is used only in the Ukrainian idiom, because of the peculiarities of Ukrainian language, but these idioms still correspond and both mean to swear that something is completely truthful, genuine, or sincere.

Die by (one’s) own hand ???????? ?? ???? ????
V + prep + Adj + HAND V + prep + P + ????
These idioms come from the same source but have some variations; however, mutual correspondence prevails here. The English idiom contains preposition by, which signifies the mean involved in the act. This is substituted with pronoun in the Ukrainian idiom. Both idioms mean to commit suicide.

Helping hand ???? ????????
Adj + HAND ???? + N
Here adjective is used only in the English idiom, because Ukrainian language is not characterized by such constructions, so that the noun in genitive case is used in the Ukrainian idiom.

2.2.2. Relative equivalence
Pull together ????? ???? ? ????
V + Adv V + P + prep + ????
With the meaning to calm oneself down and begin to think or act appropriately both idioms differ in many aspects.
to be hand in glove with (someone) ? ???? ????? ?????
V + HAND + prep + N + prep prep + Num + N + V
These idioms mean working together, often to do something dishonest.
caught with (someone’s) hand in the cookie jar ???? ????????? ?? ????????
V + prep + HAND + prep + N V + prep + Adj
The meaning of this pair is to be caught while you are doing something dishonest.
?onsequently, the idioms are dissimilar both lexically and syntactically and are characterized by the use of lexically different words.

2.2.3. Non-equivalence
The following group includes English HAND idioms that have been found to be without their idiomatic Ukrainian counterparts for different reasons (i.e. the absence of events that motivate the meaning of the idiom (dead man’s hand). Each idiom is provided with its meaning.
to live from hand to mouth to have just enough money to live on and nothing extra
dead man’s hand a symbol of bad luck
devil finds work for idle hands to do
people who have no work or activity are more likely to do things they should not do, such as commit crimes
carry fire in one hand and water in the other To be duplicitous, to deceive
a fine Italian hand a skill in a distinct field
The conducted research is aimed at the linguistic analysis of the similarities and differences of the cognitive structures of Ukrainian and English idioms with core component “????” and “HAND” with further comparison of the specific features of their structure on syntactic and semantic levels, exploring their motivation, finding equivalents of these idioms in both languages and dividing them into groups according to their features.
The main outcomes of this research can be summarized as follows:
1) People make sense of their figurative meaning with the help of conceptual metaphors and metonymies because idioms are conceptually motivated.
2) There must be a certain degree of similarity in the way in which people conceptualize the world around them; otherwise no sensible communication via languages would be possible. So that cross-cultural concepts exist in people’s minds.
3) The concept of HAND and ???? are widely used in both languages. They motivate the figurative meaning of many idioms in Ukrainian and English. As this body part is used in many processes, the meaning of the most idioms can be easily understood.
4) The idioms, which have no equivalents in another language, exist both in Ukrainian and English. They are mostly historically motivated.
5) The most of the idioms analysed are of relative equivalence – 54%. The reason is that English and Ukrainian languages have differences in semantics and syntax. 32% of the idioms are absolute equivalents. Still 14% of the idioms have no equivalence in another language.

6) The most frequent difference between the idioms is use of singular or plural.
7) There several most common conceptual metonymies and metaphors that motivate the meaning of both Ukrainian and English idioms, so that the equivalent idioms in these languages exist.
8) The most of the idioms correspond in meaning and structure; however non-equivalents still exist in both of them.

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