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Bailey Hoyt
Biology 1002
Dr. Marshall
14 November 2018
QUESTION ONE:
Pluie’s story began in 1991 in Canada when the gray wolf was captured by scientists that put a radio tracking collar on her and released her back into the wild. Scientist kept up with Pluie for several years and found that the gray wolf traveled over 38,600 square miles over just a two year span. Needless to say the gray wolf traveled ten times the area of Yellowstone park in only two years. Pluie’s story ended when she traveled into a legal hunting ground and she was shot and killed along with her mate and three cubs. Although Pluie did not live on her legend definitely did, in fact Plume saved countless amounts of other wolves because her journey showed conservationists the need for more land to roam for wildlife and also the need for safe passages, such as corridors. Pluie was in a national reserve up until her death which is a huge problem associated with zoned reserves. Zoned reserves are areas that are completely protected from human alterations, they are a safe haven for most animals, and they are a huge necessity to the population of wild animals. The problem is that most of the zoned reserves are not quite big enough, which Pluie helped to point out. Not only are the reserves not large enough to support the animals, but once an animal travels outside of these reserves they do not know what to do and more times than not, they die due to human interaction whether it is hunting or being killed by moving cars or so many other reasons. This is the reason why corridors are so important. A wild life corridor is a passage that links two or more wildlife habitats. These corridors are extremely important because they connect two communities while protecting animals from human interaction. The issues connected to creating protected areas really just has to do with them not being large enough for example when climate changes animals start to migrate r move to areas that support their needs and these protected areas just are not large enough for them to do so safely. Although these protected areas are not large enough they have helped us to overcome so much such as habitat loss by protecting dying habitats to insure their recovery. They have helped us overcome deaths in so many animals by protecting them as well such as by tracking them and seeing the ways they die and how we can help stop that also by creating natural corridors for protection as well, especially during climate changes.

QUESTION TWO:
Habitat loss is also known as habitat destruction and is a process by which habitats are altered and can no longer support their native species. Human alteration is of course the greatest threat to all habitats also affecting biodiversity, greatly. Habitat loss also causes fragmentation causing large habitats to be divided into smaller, secluded habitats. Some of the main causes for fragmentation and destruction is forestry, mining, agriculture, environmental pollution, and urban development. Aquatic habitats are being affected by irrigation, dams are being constructed for flood control, drinking water, and hydroelectric power. These acts of human alteration are damaging rivers and wet land ecosystems beyond measures. The habitat loss in aquatic habitats including estuaries, marshes, swamps, and wetlands. Most of these habitats have been looted by residential and commercial development. Aquatic habitats also include the marine habitat which is probably one of the most effected aquatic habitats. We see this effect in the loss of coral reefs and even in most coastal areas. All aquatic biomes are breeding grounds for all marine species and should be better protected. Although not all habitat loss is due to human nature but is also due to mother nature. However, the blame is not equal. Human alteration definitely takes the lead. Some causes of marine habitat loss is climate and seas changes, climate change related to heat, pollution, unsustainable fishing, lack of protection from government, shipping, eutrophication, and development of coastal places. All marine species are being affected by the habitat loss and fragmentation because it causes marine species to migrate into areas out of their element, species food reduction due to over fishing and other reasons, and species extinction also due to over fishing and pollution among other reasons. Some solutions to marine habitat loss would be controlling pollution, environmental conservation policies, controlled fishing, educating the public on these issues and how to help, restricting or placing a limit on coastal development, and even using specific routes for shipping. Honestly almost all of habitat loss could be controlled if only humans weren’t so greedy.
QUESTION THREE:
The Carbon Cycle is one way that the earth and everyone on it functions, without Carbon no one would survive. The Carbon Cycle begins with respiration and combustion. People produce carbon dioxide by breathing, carbon dioxide can also be formed through the burning of fossil fuels. Then producers, such as plants, absorb the carbon and use it to form carbohydrates during photosynthesis to produce oxygen. Eventually the plants will be consumed by animals that will pass these carbon compounds alone the food chain. Animals also exhale carbon dioxide back not the atmosphere. After this the plant and animals will ultimately die sooner or later and are eaten by decomposers. This releases the carbon dioxide from their bodies back into the atmosphere or they will be used as fossil fuels for combustion, the cycle is never ending and will always repeat. Although the burning of fossil fuels is an important way for the carbon cycle to continue it is also becoming an issue. An increase in the amount of fossil fuels being burned is raising the level of carbon in the atmosphere too much and in turn is causing global warming. The carbon dioxide released by combustion of fossil fuels is dangerous because it can be taken in by plants and can be assimilated into biomass. Too much carbon dioxide is being released into the atmosphere too quickly by the uncovering of fossil fuels and that is a problem. This affects the chills in the ocean throwing off its PH levels an are most likely affecting several marine species or any species the constructs shell for its egg out of calcium carbonate. This also causes rapid climate change that cannot be stopped. Carbon dioxide, Methane, and even nitrous oxide cause global climate patterns to change, due to human alterations. These changes in global climate patterns are causing temperatures to rise and also sea levels, melting glaciers and ice in Greenland and Antartica, which will cause flooding. These changes in climate also call for a change in weather events and seasonal changes causing less cold weather and more hurricanes and flooding, having massive affects on biodiversity. The rising sea levels affect so much marine life, such as sea turtles. In fact Sea turtles are already considered endangered.The sea levels rising will affect the sea turtles nesting beaches, sea turtles hatch o beaches and they return to teh same beach that they hatched on to lay their own eggs, but with rising sea levels and melting glaciers and ice caps, these beaches are disappearing. Another way that climate change is affecting sea turtles is by increasing the nesting cites temperatures since sea turtles are reptiles they indeed depend on the temperature of the sands in which they lay their eggs. The cooler sand is to incubate males and the warmer sand incubate females, but with rising temperatures it is almost certain there will be way more females than males, causing threat to their genetic diversity. The climate changes cause a negative impact on the sea turtle’s food sources, such as coral reefs. Climate change is having a terrible effect on all species of sea turtles and they are now an endangered species.
QUESTION FOUR:
The albatross is bird that has the world’s largest wingspan with a whopping eleven feet being the record, today. The albatross is a sea bird that uses its massive wings to ride the ocean’s winds without single flap for several hours, their wings also allow them to float in the water to rest or eat, this bird can even drink the salty sea waters. The albatross has also reached documented age of 50 years and yet they are rarely seen on land except to breed. These amazing creatures breed only in colonies and only lay one egg at a time. Breeding parters will then take turns caring for their single egg until it has hatched, and they do not become sexually active for at least five to ten years. Years ago albatross were heavily hated for women’s hats and in some regions were hunted as food. The albatross is now an endangered species because of the heavy hunting habits. A lot of things are ow driving these birds closer to extinction, but climate change is not among those things. It has been proven that climate change actually has no negative effect on these birds because they quite enjoy the high winds and warm weathers and this helps them spend less energy on flying and provides for better breeding areas. Although climate change is good for these birds, pollution is beyond terrible for them. Because these birds are indeed carnivores they primarily feed on marine species because they go years without touching any land. This is why pollution is especially hard on them, they eat plastic bags mistaking them for jellyfish, or any other plastic just because they think it is a tasty treat, but it is actually a toxic snack that kills them. Another factor contributing to the albatross drive to extinction is invasive species because albatross breed on isolated islands in which are also going obsolete. This is causing invasive species such as rats to prey on the albatross eggs. Also over harvesting has a large role in the drive for extinction fro albatross. Over fishing is the main cause for the deaths of albatross one because they see fish lures and think they are food and when they dive for it they get tangled up and drown. We could protect and save the albatross by educating people on the problem and supporting the agreements that can protect them, we could recycle or plastics, and even as for sustainable seafood.

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