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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies used in this research that will help the researchers to have basis on their study. Also, synthesis are showed at the end of this chapter.Definition of Gender
According to World Health Organization, gender refers to the characteristics of men and women, which are socially construct such as the norms, roles and the relationships of and between groups of men and women. The appropriate norms and behaviors are taught to most people born either male or female. Exclusion and discriminatory are often faced by those individuals or groups that do not fit on the established gender norms. It was also mentioned that this affects their health adversely. The article also explains that the gender norms, roles and relations influence their susceptibility to different health conditions and diseases.

The article entitled Understanding Gender focuses on the dimensions of gender and the difference of gender and sexual orientation. Body, identity and expression are the dimensions of gender. The first gender dimension is body. Bodies are gendered based on the cultural expectation context. It was also indicated that the masculinity and femininity are equated with certain physical attributes. The second gender dimension is identity. It is about the internal experience of naming a certain person’s gender. This dimension of gender emphasize that gender is a spectrum and it is not only limited to possibility of two.  The last gender dimension is expression and it refers to the way of showing a certain person’s gender to the world, through clothing, hairstyles and mannerisms. The difference between sexual orientation and gender are its distinct aspects of identity. Gender is the physical aspect and sexual orientation is the interpersonal aspect.

The article entitled “What is Gender”, states that the term gender refers to “cultural sex” because masculinity and femininity are characterized by cultures differently. The individual level of gender refers to the individual itself, specifically the way human beings create identities. On the other hand, the structural level of gender is about the activities of human that refers to the assignment of gender characteristics to whole areas of human activity and institutions, disregarding the fact of whether it is carried out by men or women. For the symbolic level of gender, it explains that gender symbolism refers to the masculinity and femininity attribution of connotations to the phenomena that do not refer to the sex-related differences. Moreover, it was also mentioned that gender is languaged and its essential fact is the implication of the connotation, “male” or “female” that carries evaluative, hierarchical position and creates the impression of a generally dichotomous structure within society.

Preferences of Men and Women on Perfume
According to The Statistics Portal (2016), a survey conducted among women aged 18 years and older in the United Kingdom (UK) in January 2016, aimed at exploring women’s attitudes towards fragrances and perfumes by asking their preferences on a perfume. Majority of participants reported using a type (floral, oriental and citrus) accounting for 45%, whereas 27% mentioned preferring to try different or unusual fragrances. Twelve percent of the respondents are happy to try celebrity fragrance brands. While artisan or niche fragrances showed the smallest share at 9%.

Ljubisavljevic (2016) conducted a study entitled “Psychology of Perfumes” wherein the study shows how women are attracted to different fragrances according to their personality. Jellinek and later Tisserand suggested that emotionally stable and introverted people are more inclined to choose strong floral oriental perfumes, like Opium by YSL. They generally choose oriental perfumes dominated by spicy and warm ingredients with soft undertones. These women were instantly comfort by the ingredients and seek emotional refuge from the storm unfolding outside. The emotionally ambivalent women are inclined to choose fresh floral perfumes from the likes of Poppy EDP by Coach. Since these perfumes are toned and softer, women do not let the perfume do all the talking about themselves. Due to their unstable nature, because water always flows and changes, they are viewed as emotionally distant; however, these women care more than they care to show the world. On the other hand, women with emotionally stable and extroverted personalities usually select the woody fresh perfumes like Fatale Intense by Agent Provocateur or Polo by Ralph Lauren, Jellinek suggests. These women fall under the air element category, meaning that they are innovative and outspoken, natural born motivators, open-minded and are the life of the party.    
According to a Lifespan Study, 113 women across six different age groups, from teenagers to women aged 60+ (between 17-22 respondents per group) were interviewed using the “Fragrance Questionnaire” that was developed for this research. From this, one of the results shows that majority of the respondents (3/4) were reported using environmental fragrance. The age group with the heaviest usage were women in their 30’s (95%) followed by women in their 40’s and 50’s (85%). The age group to use environmental fragrance least were the 60+ group (less than half). Among women who used environmental fragrances (across all ages), the number of products used by any individual ranged from 1 to 4, with product types being candles, air fresheners, incense and “others” such as potpourri, aromatherapy, or oils.

According to Muscarella, Arantes and Koncsol (2011), heterosexual men preferred to use musky-spicy type of scent for perfume. This was chosen from the list of 18 commonly found scents in colognes and perfumes: floral, sweet, fresh, fruity, herbal, honey, light, lavender, rich, grassy, spicy, heavy, oriental, woody, lemon, orange, musky, and leather. These lists of scents were divided into two major groups: a musky-spicy group and a floral-sweet group wherein hetero sexual men preferred scents that are categorize in musky-spicy group rather than the floral-sweet group.

Ljubisavljevic (2016) stated that perfume has superpowers because according to studies, it can stimulate the conscious mind, stabilize and modify the emotional state. However, the Psychology of Perfume suggests that there are some factors, which can trigger people to buy a perfume. One of those factors is image. Unlike men, women were drawn to the scent of the perfume. Therefore, the container and packaging of the perfume are strong factors of men’s preferences in choosing a perfume.

According to Goorah, Russeeawon, Ramchurn (2014), children are most likely to be one of the frequent users of topical mosquito repellent. They are prone to various mosquito borne diseases and mosquito bites mainly because they are physically active and they tend to do outside activities such as playing. They are advised to use mosquito repellent on regular basis. Tourists are also one of the common users of TMRs (Topical Mosquitoes Repellents) especially if they are going to tropical country where mosquitoes are common. It is used to protect themselves from the harmful diseases that they might get while travelling.

In the journal, “Factors influencing the use of topical repellents: implications for the effectiveness of malaria elimination strategies”, it indicates the factors that influence the use of topical repellent. From the survey, most of the people answered that they agreed on using repellent while some of them disagree in using topical repellent. Based from the study, men are mainly the target of mosquitoes because most of them perform different activities in forest. As researchers investigate, mosquitoes are attracted on different scents of perfume or cologne. The scent produced from sweat also attracts the mosquitoes. In this case, a repellent is strongly recommended for every men to keep them protected (2015).

Koren, Matsui and Bailey conducted a study on 2003 entitled “DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women” that shows that women are concerned about using mosquito repellents such as DEET especially when they are pregnant or lactating because it might affect the condition of the baby. A study was conducted in Thailand, where 897 pregnant women was put in a test to know if 1.7 g/d of topical repellent that is applied regularly will have an effect on the growth and development of the baby. The results states that it does not have an effect on most of the mothers.  
Factors that affect the Interest Level of Consumers on a Product
According to Abusrour (2016), the study investigated on factors that affect the consumer’s choice of perfume products in Famagusta, North Cyprus. The researchers considered different factors such as the perfume’s price, brand, packaging, quality, promotional activities, recommendations and impulse buying. Based on the results of the study, these factors has no significant effect to the consumer’s purchase decision of perfume. In addition, the results showed no difference in level of interest of purchasing a perfume between the male and female consumers in Famagusta. However, when it comes to the recommendations, there is a difference between the effects of recommendation from people and recommendation from the internet, for it affects younger males and females in Famagusta because of their significant use of technology. Other than that, the other factors have no effect on the male and female consumers’ choice of perfume products.

According to Mask (2016), the article indicates the different factors that attracts the interest of the consumers on a product or service provided by an existing business venture.

Mask then identified these factors such as location of the business, the product response to the consumer’s problem, entrepreneur’s expertise and ability to create a solid customer relationship. These factors determine to contribute to the interest level of every consumer on a business.

According to Aswegen (2015), the article depicts how gender affects the interest level of the consumers based on their buying or consuming behavior. It shows that the brain of men and women differs in which part where it performs critical thinking. By this, the process of decision-making was also affected. The men being utilitarian and women becoming hedonic was also portrayed in this article to show the shopping motives of each gender. In addition, women tend to explore more in purchasing while men want a straightforward and easy process of shopping. Lastly, women often use their emotional senses in choosing the product and men then look on more realistic and logical side of facts and specific details.

A study conducted by Panin, Bilali and Berjan on 2015 stated that the research specified the main factors that influence the consumers’ interest for Protected Designation of Origin or PDO products in Serbia. A likert scale is used by the researcher to gather information in this research. Every scale has five categories and the researchers chose two products that are registered Serbian PDO products and are present in the diet habits of Serbian population. The results show the factors that influence consumers’ interest for PDO products and even to pay price premium for them are daily eating habits, awareness of PDO/PGI scheme, interest in typical and traditional products and monthly income. First, eating habits influences the consumers’ interest because some of the PDO products are present in the Serbian Diet. Second, being aware to PDO scheme influences consumers’ interest because valuable labels inform the consumers that the expected quality is provided. Third, typical and traditional products influence consumers’ interest because consumers are concerned with the quality and geographical label that sets off the reputation of the food. Lastly, monthly income influences consumers’ interest because to command a premium, the consumers must respond to food labelling since they perceived high eating quality for the product.

Christensen, Cook and Hall conducted a study on 2006 entitled “What customers want from your products?” and in the article it indicates that the fundamental unit of analysis for a marketer who hopes to develop products that customers will buy is to find the job that the product gives. An example of this is a fast-food restaurant that tried to improve its sales of milk shakes. First, the researcher tried to identify what the customers want from their milkshakes and applied it, but it did not have an impact on their sales. A new researcher came next and introduced a new method in which the researcher identified the purpose of the product on why customers buy it and after knowing the results; they improved the areas in which the job of a milk shake was emphasized. After applying the new improvements, the fast-food restaurant matched up to its direct and indirect competitors. This example shows that job-defined markets are much larger than product category-defined markets. To improve a product, it does not equate to understand the customer, but comes from understanding the job that the product does to its customers.e valuable labels inform the consumers that the expected quality is provided. Third, typical and traditional products influence consumers’ interest because consumers are concerned with the quality and geographical label that sets off the reputation of the food. Lastly, monthly income influences consumers’ interest because to command a premium, the consumers must respond to food labelling since they perceived high eating quality for the product.

Zakaria, Yunos, et al., conducted a study on 2017, entitled “The effect of consumers’ interest, information access and spending willingness on halal products trustworthiness.” The study focuses on the effect of consumer’s interest, information access and spending willingness towards the trustworthiness of Muslims on Halal products. This study is conceptualized because of the issue that comes from the trust of Muslim consumers to the certification process itself as many fake Halal logo certifications were out in the market. Based on a survey of 167 Malaysian Muslim respondents, the results of this study reveal that only the interest and spending willingness of a Muslim consumer is significant with the trustworthiness to the Halal Products. In addition, the level of education is significant in determining the trustworthiness that Muslims have to Halal products. Some of these are gelatin, blood and processed dairy products. The trustworthiness is important because of the Shariah Law that the Muslims follow.

Measurement of Interest Level
In the book of Data Levels of Measurement by Statistic Solutions (2018), it was stated that one of the important things that a researcher must know and understand is the use of different levels of measurement. The article discussed the four different types of measurement level. These are the Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio. The first type of the level of measurement is the Nominal Level of Measurement; words, numbers, letters, alphanumeric symbols etc. are used to classify the data presented in the research. Second, the Ordinal Level of Measurement and in this type, the ordered relationship within the variables are recognized. Third, the Interval Level of Measurement, this type of measurement does not only categorize the orders of the variables, but it also considers the distance between each interval. Lastly, the Ratio Level of Measurement, the variables in this type of measurement can have a value of zero. In addition, there is an equal distance between the points on the scale in the division. With the levels of measurements, the researchers will be able to determine the statistical analysis that will be used in the research.

From the book entitled The Use of Intent Scale Transactions to Predict Purchase Interest by Risen and Risen (2018), stressed that researchers can use methods to predict and know if a product can get the interest of the target market. One of these is call Intent scale transactions. This method is used to predict purchase interest of a product by gathering data from customer survey on purchase intentions and converting it into prediction of purchase probability wherein a researcher can rely on, to forecast the probability that a consumer will purchase the preferred product. Two methods can be used in intent scale transaction. First is 5-point scale or Likert scale that is used to understand consumers’ intention to buy a product by conducting basic surveys to come up with Intent Probability to be compared with Predicted Purchase Intent that can be obtained by doing a follow-up research to measure the actual purchase behavior of the consumer. Second is 11-point scale or Juster scale which is a more accurate version of 5-point scale because every description correlates directly to a number ranking of 0 to 10. Also, 11-point scale was done by pre-interviewing respondents to get the percentage of purchase probability and after a month the respondents who has taken the interview will be interviewed again to know how many percent of the respondents who was interviewed last month that buys to be able to estimate the actual purchase intent.

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