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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this research is to establish and assess the factors that maybe influence the participation of the youth in the plantation sector, especially in Rubber Industry. The main focus will be on their background, the point of view and direction in this sector. By asking some question related to each segment, it was hoped that main question which is the factors that maybe influence the participation of the youth in plantation sector can be determined.
This chapter will demonstrate some rationality for choosing this kind of research topic; it will also provide an overview of the following chapters by briefly outlining the content of each one.

1.1Rationale for undertaking this research project
With lack of involvement from the youth in the agricultural sector year by year. It is wise and necessary for us to understand what may cause this in the first place. The average age of farmers in Malaysia exceeds 46 years old. Showing that most of the farmer consisted of the old one and there is lack of involvement from the farmer age below 46 years old (Md. Salleh and HayrolAzril, 2009) and (Ezhar et al., 2007).

This trend, declining of involvement from the youth may be affected by the current state of lifestyle. Youth are not interested to join agriculture because they thought that in this field, it is not an attractive area to work with. Young people tend to look for a comfy, clean and safe work environment. The job requirement may also affect their decision as usually, most plantation field is far from the city, which is very important for the youth nowadays to do their day to day activities that required a city to be near from them (World Development Report, 2007).

Furthermore, there is very little research on the youth involvement, especially in the rubber industry. This lead to this research to understand how critically the involvement of youth in this field for the industry, for now, and the future needs.

1.2Objective
This research hopes to develop the following objectives:
To identify the factors that affect the youth involvement in Rubber Industry
To investigate the challenges of the youth participation in Rubber
To explore the perception and future view of the youth farmer for the Rubber Industry
By discovering and understanding the critical point of the rubber industry, which is the involvement of the youth. It is hoped that the data obtained from this research project can be used to determine the degree of the seriousness of their involvement and how the important agencies in this industry can determine their future action to attract them.

1.3Outline of the study
In chapter two, several literature reviews related to the topic will be discussed. This chapter will discuss Rubber Industry in Malaysia, Definition of The Youth Globally and Malaysia especially. Not to forget their past and current involvement in the industry and their importance.
Chapter three will discussed and present the methodological approach that is used to conduct the research project. It will discuss the aim of the research project, how the data collection methods being used, and how the data that had been collected was analysed.

Chapter four will discuss and presented the findings from the research project that had been conducted. Data will be analysed and presented with supporting narratives related.

Chapter five will discuss the findings obtained, why the findings are relevant and related to the research project and the findings from the research project are related to other research that already been carried out.

And finally in chapter six, will be concluded with a summary of the complete research project that had been conducted along with some recommendation for future and references related research.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
In chapter two, it focuses more on an idea about literature review related to the youth and rubber in Malaysia. The literature review provides definitions of youth and rubber, generally and locally. In addition to the related topic research, it also discussed literature review that provides related variable on the involvement of the youth in the rubber industry.

2.2 Global Youth
The word “Youth” has many definitions and vary among organization and parts of the world. For example, according to The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines a youth as a transition from dependence childhood to adulthood’s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community. In addition, the word “Youth” defined in (Oxford dictionaries) as the state of being young. Legislators define youth as someone within the age limit. While some psychologist defines youth as the period between puberty and adulthood. It can be seen clearly that different sector, organization translates the term “Youth” differently.
2.3Malaysian Youth
In Malaysia, the concept and understanding of youth can be understood as an individual with a range between the ages of 15 – 40, as defined in the (1997) National Youth Development Policy. This (1997) National Youth Development Policy objective is to establish a holistic and harmonious Malaysian youth force imbued with strong spiritual and moral values. Its strategies include developing a knowledge base on youth as well as a focus on skill development. We can see that youth in Malaysia is a young people aged from 15 until 40 years old. An age range where most of them start to build up their life with skills and knowledge.
2.4Rubber
Rubber tree or scientifically known as Hevea brasiliensis is a tree belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae. According to the (Ecoport, 2009), the rubber tree is a fast growing with medium to tall in height tree which can gain to 25 meters high in plantation and up to 40 meters in the wild. Have a smooth and straight with greyish bark trunk and trifoliate leaves. In addition, this tree grows best between 15°N and 10°S and from sea level up to 600 meters, with the optimal altitude being below 200 meters (Ecocrop, 2009). Meanwhile, mentioned by (Ghani et al., 2000), that the rubber tree is native to the tropical rainforest of the Amazon basin and the Guianas. (Wild. ex A.Juss.) Also stated that Hevea brasiliensis is native to Brazil, between parts of the Amazon Basin and Matto Grosso and the Guianas, but most of the world’s rubber comes from plantations in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Highlighting that this tree is not native to that country but still being planted by and producing most of the rubber production for the world.
2.5Rubber in Malaysia

Figure 1: Morning collection of latex in a Malayan rubber plantation
Source: National Archives Malaysia – 2001/0050193
Rubber or its scientific name Hevea brasiliensis was brought by British colonists to this country in 1877 from Sri Lanka to Singapore and Kuala Kangsar. Based on the book 75th Anniversary of The Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (1925-2000) Milestones in Rubber Research, research on rubber began around 1909. In 1920, six scientists were involved in the research and the Federal Agriculture Department of Malaya was also actively involved until the Malaysian Rubber Research Institute (RRIM) functioned in 1925. Today, Malaysian Rubber Research Institute is replaced by Malaysian Rubber Board (MRB). The merger of the institute together with Malaysia Rubber Research and Development Board (MRRDB) and Malaysian Rubber Market and Licensing Board (MRELB) on 1 January 1998 remained focused on research on rubber. (Utusan online, 2013)
2.6Motivation

Figure 2: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model
Human conduct is objectively coordinated. Motivation cause objective coordinated conduct. It is through motivation that necessities can be taken care of and handled deliberately. According to the (Collins English Dictionary), a motivation can be defined as “desire to do; interest or drive”. Also defined as a process that arouses, sustains and regulates human and animal behaviour. Burleson and Thoron (n.d) also discussed and stated in their research findings that human as an individual is motivated by their own desire to achieve their own goals in their life. It is by attaining or obtaining their own goals at the end of the day that can help humans to satisfy their own specific desire and need. In the agricultural sector, farmer as an individual mainly motivated by their physiological needs and safety needs. They are motivated by those two needs as those needs is a basic need in human life according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model. Which means they need to be satisfied first in order to obtain and attain the higher level of needs in the next phase of their life.
2.7Challenges
Involvement
Involvement in agricultural sector especially in this research paper; Rubber, is one of the main challenges that were faced. As stated by (Datuk Salmiah Ahmad, Head Director of Malaysia Rubber Board, Utusan Online, 2013) in his interview, he said “Among the problems we face is that most or 95 per cent are smallholders and of that total, 50 per cent are those over 50” he said. From the statement, we can see the clear problem that currently being faced by our agricultural sector is the involvement of the youth, individual within age 15 to 40.
Surrounding
According to the (Prof Dr Ghizan Saleh, Head of Agricultural and Food Cluster and Head of the State Professor’s Council, Utusan Online, 2017) in his interview, environmental factors contributing significantly to the agricultural sector in the country. He said among them, the change in temperature of the earth rose to 0.2 degrees Celsius in every 10 years. This rise in temperature will cause the impact of plant life and livestock that depend heavily on temperature as a living factor. The problem of global warming will also cause a rise in the level of sea water and rivers to cause the agricultural area to be damaged due to overflowing of water.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1Introduction
In this chapter, the approach and method took to investigate the view of youth participation in agricultural sector especially Rubber Industry will be discussed. In this chapter also, the objective and the research method will be shown so that it can help in better understanding on how the research being conducted that includes the presentation of the sample that had been selected, a method that is used for data collection and the process of data analysis.

3.2Aim of Research
The purpose of this study is to investigate the following research question:
To identify the factors that affect the youth involvement in Rubber Industry
To investigate the challenges of the youth participation in Rubber
To explore the perception and future view of the youth farmer for the Rubber Industry
3.3Qualitative Approach
For this research specifically, a qualitative approach has been chosen as the research method. (Babbie, Earl, 2014) views a qualitative approach as a scientific methodology of observation to collect non-numerical information. While (William M.K. Trochim, 2006) views a qualitative approach as a general way of thinking when one to conducting the qualitative research. Describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the aim of the qualitative analysis, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of analysis, and therefore the methodology of information analysis. In this research, a qualitative approach has been selected as it was more suitable and appropriate. It allows the researcher to access more information deeply and meaningfully based on each individual, as this collection method can include a group discussion, interviews or just an observation.

3.4Interviews (Semi-Structured)
In this research topic, a semi-structured interview had been selected. It had been chosen as this type of interview allowing each participant, individually, to give out more information elaborately, its flexibility allowing a great capacity to extract and obtain more information from each one of the participants. Also, according to (Bernard, 1988), this type of interviews is best used when we as a researcher dint have another opportunity or won’t get more than one chance to interview someone. He also implied that it is best used when we want to send more than one interviewers to the field in order to collect the data. Other than that, (May 1997) also stated that this type of interviews also allows the each one of the participants to answer each question that had been asked with their own opinion and views than the standard type of interviews.
While (Laforest, 2009) stated that in order to do a proper and good semi-structured interview, it required a planning. A comprehensive planning that required the researcher to identifying their respondent, deciding on their number of the interview that needs to be conducted and also preparing for that interviews.
3.5Sampling and Selection
According to (Latham. B, 2007) Sampling is a statistical procedure which using the population that had been selected and analysing the data that had been collected as a research information and data. When conducting the sampling, the assumption of an equal means between population and sample has been made. Also (Martin N Marshall, 1996) stated that the aim of all quantitative sampling approaches is to draw a representative sample from the population so that the results of studying the sample can then be generalized back to the population. The aim of the quantitative approach is to test pre-determined hypotheses and produce generalizable results. Useful for answering more mechanistic questions. Other than that, it also gives enlightenment and comprehension of complex psychosocial issues and is generally valuable for noting humanistic questions
In this research specifically, the purposive sampling technique had been selected in order to select a sample of participants. The participant that had been selected for this research is a youth farmer that involve in Rubber Industry. They are young people aged below 40 years old, within a suitable range of the exact meaning of the youth in Malaysia and Globally.
Participants Sex Age Real Professions Acre/Hectare Factor involvement
1 Male 2 Male 3 Male 4 Female 5 Male All participants involved in this research had been contacted by the researcher through the help of the staff from the Malaysian Rubber Board Industry and Lembaga Industri Getah Sabah, Daerah Tuaran. The total of participant involved in this research topic is five participant. As had been mention earlier, Participant involved have a different factor that had to lead them to participate in this Rubber Industry, profession, perspective and feelings.
3.6Data Collection
Data collection for this research topic had been conducted in March 2018 and the interview session included a set of questions. A series of questions that had been constructed before accordingly, allow the participant to answer with depth and details. All participant were being interviewed through a phone calls. All the conversation between the researcher and the participant had been recorder by the recorder built in the mobile phone itself. Two from the five participant were known by the researcher while the others with the help form the Lembaga Industri Getah Sabah had been selected and introduced to help the researcher in this research topic. Before starting the interview session, all participant had been contacted by the researcher though a phone calls and text messaging in order to make an appointment so that all participant are free when being interviewed. All participants choose to conduct the interview session at their homes during their own free times. Because all participant were busy with works and activities with their farms. It is also where they are felt more comfortable with their surroundings, allowing them to speak more about their opinion, feelings, and views in this Rubber Industry. Semi-structured interview is consist of one or more main questions that help to explain in details about the areas that need to be explored, it is also allows the interviewer or interviewee to split an idea or response in more detail. Provides with some guidance on what to talk about (Britten N, 1999). All participant were presented with the same set of questions that mainly asking them about the factor of involvement in the Rubber Industry. Questions given are mostly open ended such as their opinion and views about the future of the Rubber Industry itself.
The interview had been structured into three section:
Participant background.

Farm activities and operation conduct by the participant.

Participant point of view, perception toward the Rubber Industry.

All participant were allowed to express their own thought, feelings and point of view freely relating to the set of questions that had been arrange by the researcher.
3.7Data Analysis
After the data had been collected, it is need to be analyse in order to extract information from it. The process included the data being interpret and verified.

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