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CYP Core 3.4
Q1.1 Describe the factors to consider when planning healthy and safe indoor and outdoor environments and services
Answer
• The individual needs abilities and ages of the children and young people.• Certain risk factors• Mobility, sensory, medical needs• The needs of carers and extended family• The environment and the services that are availableThe duty of care to always have the child’s safety and welfare in mind.• The desired outcome clear aims and objectives based around the EYFS framework.• Lines of responsibilities everyone has responsibility for the health and safety of the children and young people each member of staff need clear reporting 
Things to look out forGardenGates and fences
Secure all gates /fences surfaces Slips falls Clean/clear all areas dailyWater (ponds, drains and pools) can cause drowning death-Cover all water features securelyPaddling pools
Drowning death Never leave an attended childSand pits Poison animal mess
Check daily and replace each term Out buildings (sheds) Poison harm from tools equipment Keep locked at all time Tools and equipment can cause electric shock, cuts, burns and scalds- Keep locked away at all timesWashing lines
Strangulation Remove or coverPlants Poison
Check for safe plants and no bamboo sticks.Animal faeces
Poison blindness
Clean up immediatelyOther
Q1.2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely.

Answer
All member of staff are responsible for Health and Safety in the setting. We must go Health and Safety training and regularly update our knowledge and understanding of all aspects. The Health and Safety policies and procedures are
clearly displayed. We maintain lists of health and safety issues, which are checked: – daily before the session begins; check (indoors and outside) if there is no hazard in the, for example a forgotten cleaning product reachable or a
broken toy with sharp edge; -check (indoor and outside) if the toys and equipment that you are going to use are in good conditions (clean, not broken); -check if the toilets are clean and have soap and toilet paper; -weekly; all the daily checks plus all kitchen and storage: for example if there is no out of date food. termly-when a full risk assessment is carried out, all the daily and weekly checks plus electrical/gas equipment.

1.3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services
All workers are entitled to work in environments where risks to their health and safety are properly controlled. Under health and safety law, the primary responsibility for this is down to employers.

Workers have a duty to take care of their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by your actions at work. Workers must co-operate with employers and co-workers to help everyone meet their legal requirements.

As a worker, if you have specific queries or concerns relating to health and safety in your workplace, talk to your employer, manager/supervisor or a health and safety representative
There are many different sources of current guidance that educational settings can use in order to plan for a healthy and safe environment or service including the following:
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Department of Education
St John’s Ambulance
The British Red Cross
British Standards Institute (BSI)
Child Accident Prevention Trust (CAPT)
Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)
Ofsted
Royal Society for the prevention of Accidents (ROSPA)
The Health and Safety Executive covers all aspects of Health and Safety in all work environments and also provides guidance for those specifically working with children. It provides advice on specific topics such as accident reporting, risk assessments, manual handling, control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH), provision and use of work equipment (PUWER), school trips and managing the movement of vehicles both on and directly outside school premises.The Department of Education is responsible for all areas of Education and Children’s services. With regards to supporting a healthy and safe environment it offers advice on bullying, pupil health and wellbeing, child protection issues, school transport, computer and internet safeguards and teaching standards.The Child Action Prevention Trust work to reduce the number of children and young people killed disabled or seriously injured in accidents. They achieve this by offering families and professionals access to safety information with regards to common injury types, common accident locations, e.g. gardens, roads, water, and safety equipment and standards.
1.4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work settings
The Health ; Safety at Work Act 1974 places duties on the employer to so far as reasonably practicable ensure staff; residents and visitors are not exposed to Health ; Safety Risks.

Regulation 3 (1) requires that a formalised risk assessment be carried out to determine the risks associated with your working operations. The employer should acknowledge that the assessment would need to identify risks both to employees and any other person who may be affected.

Regulation 3(3) of the Management of Health ; Safety at Works Regulations 1999 require that risk assessments are kept up to date which means any significant change which affects risk (e.g. a new employee, equipment or work practice) should lead to a re-assessment of risk.

Risk Management is a key concept in health and safety to ensure control is focused on measures of greatest unacceptable risk. A risk assessment is a vigilant examination of what, in a place of work, could cause harm to people so that the employer can assess if they have taken sufficient precautions to prevent danger and injury. Cornerways Children’s Services will make regular assessments of their premises and activities to define risk and how to best manage safe systems of work.

Since the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974, a number of specific regulations have been implemented that require care home proprietors to carry out risk assessments for specific hazards:
Manual handling
Electricity
Noise
VDU work stations
Hazardous substances (COSHH)
The management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (as amended) requires care home employers to make “suitable and sufficient” assessment of risks to health and safety of their employees while at work.

There are categories of staff employed at Cornerways that require extra protection. These employees are:
pregnant women
employees with disabilities
The risk assessment regarding these employees will ensure that precautions are suitable and sufficient to protect these employees from harm.

The 1999 Regulations, requires employees to assess the risks of health & safety of pregnant workers, those who have recently given birth and those who are breastfeeding, ensuring that the health & safety of these employees is not put at risk.

Risk Assessment Process
At Cornerways risk assessment and hazard analysis are the sole responsibility of the Director and the Senior Management team. Risk assessments are carried out in the following areas:
Full premises risk assessment
COSHH assessments
Fire risk assessments
Electrical safety assessments
VDU work station assessments
Post accident risk assessments
Pre-placement risk assessments undertaken on young women at the point of referral
Cornerways policies and procedures are designed to create a safe working/living environment for adults and young people. Even after all precautions have been taken some risks will still remain in the workplace. The assessment process will define what significant hazards remain, whether these are high, medium or low and what action is necessary to safeguard employees, young people and the public.

If a risk or hazard cannot be eliminated altogether, Cornerways will ensure that procedures are in place to control the risk so that harm is unlikely through safe systems of work.

CONTROL AND MONITORING
The purpose of the risk assessment is to formulate a system of control for hazards associated with daily working environment and working practices, to achieve this Action Plan will be developed.

Once a hazard has been identified, its risk should be assessed to determine how and whether it should be further controlled or whether existing controls are adequate.

Under the Health & Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations, 1996 employees must be given the information necessary for effective participation in the consultative process regarding health and safety.
It is vitally important that all staff at Cornerways is involved in health and safety matters even though the responsibility for health and safety remains with the Director and Management team.

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2. Be able to recognise and manage risks to health and safety and security in a work setting or off site visits
2.1 Demonstrate how to identify potential hazards to the health, safety and security of children or young people, families and or other visitors and colleagues
Make sure that I am aware of and follow my settings health, safety and security procedures before I start work. Ensure that before I begin any work activities I check and use any risk assessments examine the areas in which I work and any equipment I have to use to ensure that they are safe hazard free and conform to legal and the settings requirements for health and safety remove where possible hazards that might pose a health and safety risk to myself and others. Take account of individuals’ needs, wishes, preferences and choices, while ensuring my own and the safety of individuals, key people and others when carrying out my work activities. Operate within the limits of my own roles and responsibilities in relation to health and safety. Seek additional support to resolve health and safety problems where necessary. Report health and safety issues to the appropriate people and complete health, safety and security records according to legal and organisational requirements. Identify and work with others to minimise potential risks in the place where I am working. Ensure that my own health and hygiene does not pose a threat to others. Ensure that the appropriate people know where I am at all times. Checking for hazards and health, safety and security risks while I am working taking appropriate action if there is the likelihood of an accident, injury or harm. Check that people who are present have a right to be there.Use approved methods and procedures when undertaking potentially hazardous work activities, including using correct moving and handling techniques wearing correct personal protective clothing appropriate to the situation, environment and activities using and storing equipment and materials dealing with spillages and disposal of waste.
2.2 Demonstrate ability to deal with hazards in a work setting or in off site visits
The value of outdoor education helps young people to:
• acquire skills which promote well-being and healthy lifestyles into adulthood
• develop knowledge and understanding about risks to promote their own and others’ safety
• enjoy and achieve as a result of opportunities to develop as successful and confident learners
• gain a heightened awareness of the local and global environment and our role within it
• gain and apply key skills including leadership, team working and decision making, so that they are better able to achieve economic wellbeing.

Risk assessing the premises both indoors and outdoors and also activities if planning
It is acknowledged that organising and leading offsite activities puts a great deal of responsibility on all involved. High-profile incidents and reports in the media have certainly increased these pressures. Despite this, the schools and youth groups within Surrey LEA continue to offer a wide range of opportunities for young people. The benefits are immense and make an invaluable contribution to the academic, personal and social development of young people.
Every young person should experience the world beyond the classroom as an essential part of learning and personal development, whatever their age, ability or circumstances.

Learning outside the classroom is about raising achievement through an organised, powerful approach to learning in which direct experience is of prime importance, this is not only about what
Educational visits and outdoor activities should:
• have significant educational value, academic and/or social, and be consistent with the stated aims of both the LEA and the individual institution, including those for outdoor/environmental education or residential experience;
• be suitable to the young people involved having regard to their ages, abilities, needs and aptitudes; aim to be inclusive.
For schools:
• be related to the school’s established aims and/or curriculum, particularly if the activity is to take place in term time;
• be linked to work within school by preparation and follow-up
UNIT HOLIDAY PLAN August 2015
RISK ASSESSMENT
IDENTIFIED RISK POTENTIAL HARM MANAGEMENT OF RISK REMAINING RISK
PREMISES
Intentional breakages to valuables
Child A YW aware they will individually accountable for intentional damage to property/environment
Removal and safe storage of any items felt to be at risk and stored in staff bedroom away from direct harm
Due to A’s risk assessment carers will go ahead in the second vehicle to clear any high risk items, and lock them away in a secure room. Low
SHARPS Self harmAccident to self
Misuse towards others To be removed from kitchen and stored in locked suitcase when not in use.

Suitcase with lock to be taken – staff to hold keys Low
FIRST AID Accidents First aid box to be taken and available at house and in car.
Staff supporting are qualified first aiders
All venues visited will have first aiders on site Low
MEDICATION STORAGE & ADMINISTRATION Misuse
Mis-administration All medication to be held in locked case – keys held by staff
MAR sheets and relevant medical records taken in meds file to ensure clear instructions for safe administration and recording of all meds administered. Low
ABSENCE Area unknown
Risk from strangers If absence – try and contact yw by phone, search local area.

Contact Andrew Fisher 07th-9th August, Sarah Jones 10th-14th August re: further action and procedure to follow.

All YW’s contact cards and important contact details to be taken with staff at all times throughout holiday Low
MISUSE OF MONIES Misuse of monies
Access to alcohol etc Monies to be held in locked petty cash tins when not in use
Safe storage when out on activities and holding amounts of petty cash
All transactions and receipts to be entered on petty cash sheet
Staff accountable for own petty cash allowance and cash record
All yw supervised spending by staff throughout holiday Low
MISBEHAVIOUR, BULLYING, SMOKING IN INAPPROPRIOATE AREA, EXCESSIVE SWEARING, POOR CONDUCT IN COMMUNITY, ABUSIVE INCIDENTS Risk to self and others
Difficulty to manage
Sabotage to holiday Yellow card warning where appropriate
Red card warning arrangements will be made to return yw(s) to White House
Is there are any incidents with RA she will returned to the White House straight after in the spare care due to recent incidents and high risk assessment. Low/med
SUBSTANCE MISUSE Breach of law, harm to health No tolerance, red card immediate arrangements will be made to return yw(s) to White House Wookie Caves Getting lost
Accident
Absence Identify meeting point for any yw that may accidentally get lost
YW have their mobiles on and charged
Caves subject to high health and safety requirements as high profile public attraction
Staff have mobile with all yw’s numbers to enable them to make contact with staff.

All yw aware of how to access first aid/emergency help at caves
Notify personnel at the caves if yw not contactable, if no avail discuss with Andrew fisher re: procedure/action to take Low
Car Car details in case of accident/breakdown RAC card
Accident form
First aid kit Low
Mobile phone Lack of essential resource in managing risk assessment Two unit mobiles to be held by staff with essential contact details in phone book as well as yw’s contact numbers. Staff will also hold yw’s contact no’s on personal phone but 141 to protect their personal numbers. Low
Beach Trips Getting lost
Accident
Absence Identify meeting point for any yw that may accidentally get lost
YW have their mobiles on and charged
Staff have mobile with all yw’s numbers to enable them to make contact with staff.

All yw aware of how to access first aid/emergency help at beaches
If YW are uncontactable, discuss with Andrew Fisher or Sarah Jones according to the above stated dates re: procedure/action to take Low
Swimming at the Beach Accident Water side monitored closely by carers at the beach
All yw able to swim safely, child B not confidant-monitor closely
Access to first aid carers Low
Brean Leisure Park Getting lost
Accident
Absence Identify meeting point for any yw that may accidentally get lost
YW have their mobiles on and charged
All rides and park subject to high health and safety requirements as high profile public attraction
Staff have mobile with all yw’s numbers to enable them to make contact with staff.

All yw aware of how to access first aid/emergency help at park
Notify personnel at park if yw not contactable, if no avail discuss with Sarah Jones re: procedure/action to take Low
MINEHEAD SUMMER FESTIVAL Crowds
Getting lost
Accident
Absence Identify meeting point for any yw that may accidentally get lost
YW have their mobiles on and charged
All yw aware of how to access first aid/emergency help at festival if needed
Notify personnel at festival if yw not contactable, if no avail discuss with Sarah Jones re: procedure/action to take Low
PONY TREK Accident
Injury Carers are first aid trained
Lesson to be completed before trek
Carers to carry mobile phones so that they can call for emergency services should they need to attend
If anything happens, contact Sarah Jones re: procedure/action to take Low
2.3 Undertake a health and safety risk assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how it’s implementation will reduce risk.

Name of Premises: The White House
Date of Assessment: October 2015 Review Assessment Date: September 2016
Assessment Completed by:
Sue Lea Deputy Manager Follow up action information: I.e. medium risk require attention, high risk requires immediate attention.

Area Risk Factors Risk Category
Before reduction measures Action to minimize risk Action taken, date and by whom Risk category result
Office
Staff areas Unauthorized access to confidential information and medication cabinet. Access to unit keys, car keys and monies. Access to staff personal belongings HIGH No young women are allowed in the office, doors are not to be propped open. Staff on shift is responsible for office security and office keys.

Keys are checked and accounted for at the beginning of each shift and signed to state all are on site by staff coming on duty.

Combination locks on key safe fitted and needs be changed on a regular basis. Cupboards for confidential information and staff’s personal belongings are kept securely locked with a cupboard code lock pads, these need to be changed at regular intervals. Windows to be kept firmly closed, however during the summer months windows are normally open, window restraints are fitted and these are on a short lead which allows the windows to be open a few inches to allow cooler air to enter the office. Code pads to be changed at three monthly intervals.

Staff to remain vigilant at all times.

VDU work station(s) Eyesight deterioration, back discomfort, repetitive strain injury Low Further lighting will be better for staff eyesight. Each work station to have own desk top lighting. To be bought from the managers budget,
If eye sight problem identified optical test to be offered.

Staff to take regular breaks if doing computer work for long periods – especially relevant to administrators.
Working with VDU’s Health and Safety guide can be locate in the Health and safety file for staff to read and implement.
VDU questioner are completed Home Manager to monitor
All staff to be aware and to speak with the Home Manager if problems arise. Administrator to complete health questionnaire Yes
Risk Low
Water
Temperatures
Risk of burn injuries High Temperature range controls on boiler, staff can monitor temperature and adjust if necessary. Annual service visits by British Gas
No
Risk Low
Communal areas
Trip hazard Low The step between adjoining the conservatory and the sitting room is a potential trip hazard. A luminous strip is in place to identify the hazard. Monitored daily by staff on duty. Yes
Risk low
Residents Accommodation Trip hazards, electrical safety Low Resident’s rooms are checked daily through safety checks. Home Manager to ensure that these take place. Yes
Risk low
Upstairs window retainers/ locks Risk of fall Low Windows have locks and restraints. These are checked daily by staff and replaced immediately if broken
Staff to contact maintenance men if window restraints are found to be broken or taken off Yes
Risk low
COSHH
Updated: February 2014
Risk of misuse to health
Low Staff to follow company procedure for safe storage and use of all COSHH products.

Data sheets on all products.

Risk assessments on all hazardous products. These are held in the COSHH file held in the office. All staff, Regulation 33 Officer, Home Manager and Health and Safety officer to monitor all aspects of COSHH management Yes
Risk low
Legionella

Contamination of water system Low Following an extended period of absence from the building all taps, showers should be run for two minutes prior to use. Home Manager Yes
Risk low
Vehicles Road Safety
Break down Medium Vehicles are checked on a weekly basis by maintenance staff.

Vehicles are insured, MOT’d, taxed and serviced annually. Updated records are kept of all drivers’ details and car users details.

In the event of a breakdown vehicles are covered by the RAC rescue and recovery services.
instructions in the event of an accident can be found in the glove compartment of the car Home Managers and Personnel Officer are responsible for overseeing all checks are carried out per procedure and relevant details are up to date Yes
Risk low
Kitchen
area/
utility Health and Safety risks to people Low Staff receives training in food hygiene every two years.

Hazard analysis table completed six monthly.

Daily Health and Safety checks. All staff, Home Managers, Regulation 33 Officer to monitor Food Safety. Last food and hygiene training carried out by the company was on the 19th March 2013.

New staff have completed the ACAMAS on line training for food and hygiene Yes
Risk low
Food Storage
Food poisoning All staff, Home Managers, Regulation 33 Officer to monitor Food Safety. Food hygiene training carried out both in house and externally for all staff. Last food and hygiene training carried out on the 19th March 2013.
New staff has completed the ACAMAS online training for food and hygiene. Yes
Risk low
Environmental Health All aspects of food hygiene Low Environmental Health Inspections, staff monitor safety aspects and complete questioners periodically.

Reigate and Bansted Council.

All staff. Yes
Risk Low
Food preparation
Cross contamination Low Staff and kitchen hygiene, correct chopping boards used, food labelling and storage. All staff. Training took place19th March 2013- new staff also received training and have also completed ACAMAS online training in food and hygiene. Yes
Risk Low
External premises
Health and Safety Risks Low Patio area at rear of garden has been repaired Risk assessed carried out to assess hazards to residents and visitors.

Drive at front of house has a substantial amount of pot holes; this has been noted on the service report. Some larger pot holes have been repaired. Quotes are being sort and work will be scheduled for later in the year.
There are three ponds in the garden; all have now been filled in with garden waste such as grass cuttings.

No
Risk Low
Garden
Pond
Yes Low There are three ponds in the garden; all have now been filled in with garden waste such as grass cuttings.

No longer a hazard Yes
Risk Low
Health and Safety training Risks of Health and Safety occurrence Low Staff induction training in Health and Safety and further Health and Safety training course Training took place in March 2013 – New staff also received training Yes
Risk low
Staff sleeping in rooms. Both situated down stairs Risk of allegations’ y/w feeling vulnerable with male staff Low-Med Male staff not to be in the unit with y/w alone Guidance in the procedures manual Yes-Low
FIRST AID, ACCIDENTS & MEDICATION
Area RISK FACTORS Risk Category
Before reduction measures Action to minimize risk Action taken, date and by whom Risk category result
First Aid equipment Not being able to access correct first aid equipment Low Health and Safety officer ensures that weekly checks occur to ensure that first aid box is kept fully equipped and first aid box is easily accessible at all times. Ongoing weekly checks. First aid box is kept in the office for safety and ease of accessibility. Yes
Risk low
First Aid training Incompetent first aid administration competency Low Ongoing ‘Emergency First Aid, Appointed Persons’ training for all staff.

Last first aid training 10th October 2013 Training set up by admin staff and overseen by service Manager. New staff will need training. Yes
Risk low
Accident reporting & monitoring recording Risk to staff and young women’s health Low Ongoing Health and Safety checks, risk assessment of workplace. All staff, monitored by Home Manager, Regulation 33 Officer and the Personnel Officer Yes
Risk low
Medication Medication errors Low Staff training through induction and in house training. Delivery of Arc Medication training.

Medication risk assessment and individual risk assessment for young women.

Medication procedures in place in line with regulations Training Manager, Home Manager and Regulation 33 Officer.

Medication is checked monthly by the designated medication officer. Yes
Risk low
RIDDOR Workplace accidents not being reported investigated Low All accidents required to be reported to RIDDOR are done so in accordance to legislation All accidents are monitored by Home manager Yes
Risk low
GAS ; ELECTRIC
Area RISK FACTORS Risk Category
Before reduction measures Action to minimize risk Action taken, date and by whom Risk category result
Electrical wiring to home facilities
Electrical malfunction and potential injury to staff/young women Low Annual maintenance checks carried out by Seeboard. All actions recommended to upgrade systems are implemented Seeboard – annual visits.

Annual portable appliance testing carried out Yes
Risk low
Portable Appliance Testing Electrical malfunction and injury to staff/young women Low Annual portable appliance test carried by external electrician. Report is on file. Any items that don’t meet the required standards are disposed off. Yes
Risk low
Gas Safety Check via annual maintenance agreement Gas leaks, boiler malfunction Low Annual maintenance service carried out by British Gas.

Carbon monoxide checks to be carried out by designated staff. Any work identified through service to be carried out.
Any concerns about carbon monoxide levels to be reported to British Gas Emergency call out. Risk low
2.4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed
It is a legal requirement for all employers to carry out risk assessments, Risk assessments are simply a formal examination of what could cause harm to people, This process enables those involved to weigh up whether precautions are adequate or if more should be done to prevent harm to staff, pupils or others eg: visitors, parents, contractors etc.

Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, damage reputations and cost money. So apart from being a legal requirement, risk assessments make good sense, focusing on prevention rather than reacting when things go wrong. In many cases simple measures are very effective and not always costly.

As a management process, risk management is used to identify and avoid the potential cost, schedule, and performance/technical risks to a system, take a proactive and structured approach to manage negative outcomes, respond to them if they occur, and identify potential opportunities that may be hidden in the situation . The risk management approach and plan operationalise these management goals.

Because no two projects are exactly alike, the risk management approach and plan should be tailored to the scope and complexity of individual projects. Other considerations include the roles, responsibilities, and size of the project team, the risk management processes required or recommended by the government organization, and the risk management tools available to the project.

The risk management process is to have each person involved in the planning process individually list at least ten potential risk items. Often with this step, team members will assume that certain project risks are already known, and therefore do not need to be listed. For example, scope creep is a typical problem on most projects. Yet it still must be listed because even with the best practice management processes in place, it could still occur and cause problems on a project over time, therefore it should be addressed rather than ignored, the risk management process is to assess the probability (or likelihood), the impact (or consequence) and the detectability of each item on the master list. This can be done by assigning each item on the list a numerical rating such as on a scale from 1 to 4 or a subjective term such as high, medium, or low. Detectability is optional, but it can be simple to assess – if a risk is harder to see, such as with scope creep, then it’s a riskier item. If it’s easier to catch early, such as loss of management support or loss of a key resource, then it’s lower risk.

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3. Understand how to support children and young people to asses and manage risks for themselves
3.1 Explain why it’s important to take a balanced approach to risk management
Identify significant hazards, i.e. factors with potential to cause harm, arising from a work activity
Identify who can be harmed and how
Assess the risk, i.e. the likelihood of the harm being realised
Decide what measures need to be taken to eliminate, reduce or control the risk to an acceptable level
Implement the control measures and make sure all those involved in or affected by the work activity are aware of what must be done to control the risk. This includes, where appropriate, contractors, students etc
Keep the assessment under review to ensure that the control measures are working as planned
When deciding what must be done to control a particular risk, assessors must have regard to what is called the ‘hierarchy of risk control’ or the principles of prevention, which in practice means the following:
Trying to avoid giving rise to the risk in the first place by avoiding the activity or doing the work in a different way
Combating the risk at source, e.g. repairing defective flooring rather than posting warning notices
Adapting the work to the requirements of the individual rather than making the individual adapt to suit the work, e.g. position work equipment so that it can be accessed without awkward stretching
Utilising technical progress, e.g. where possible introduce mechanical aids that remove the need for excessive lifting, carrying
Giving priority to measures that protect the whole workplace, eg remove processes that give rise to dust rather than issue dust masks
Protective clothing should be considered the last resort, where the risk cannot be controlled by any other means
Risk assessment is not about eliminating risk, it is about managing it. That means taking steps to minimise dangers, without losing what is worthwhile – such as the chance to play and opportunities for growth and learning a hazard is something that has the capacity to cause harm. A risk is the chance of hurt or injury actually occurring. If you can remove a hazard, do so. If you cannot, reduce the chance of harm occurring until it is so low that it becomes acceptable. Have a procedure too for swift action to minimise any injury that might occur. If you do all this, and the risk is still unreasonably high, don’t do the activity. Risk assessments should be written down and reviewed regularly. This will encourage staff to learn, understand and integrate risk assessment into their work. Do it systematically and thoughtfully, not mechanistically. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel every time. Organisations should have standard risk assessments forms. Involve children and young people if appropriate. They may have a clearer idea than you about the hazards in a particular environment you don’t need to carry out risk assessments of environments that you don’t control, such as attractions you visit. Those operating them should have their own risk assessments covering your group. Check that they do before you visit. Then concentrate on the risks involved in getting there People can be hazards too. It is not just about trailing wires, playgrounds with damaged equipment, poisonous substances and machinery. Children can be harmed by adults and other children. Think about taking children into traffic and you realise that not only are other drivers potential hazards, they are very difficult to assess, because they are unpredictable and never under your control, Employers have a legal responsibility to minimise risk of injury to staff as well as children in their care, Take health and safety seriously, Don’t forget the harmful effects of stress, particularly anxiety overload caused by worrying about risk assessments.
3.2 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choice of children and young people and health and safety requirements
Millions of children across the world live without the protection of a caring family. This makes them vulnerable to exploitation, trafficking, child labour or early marriage, and other forms of physical, sexual and emotional abuse, often within their own home.

Making decisions when caring for children and young people involves a delicate balancing of the child’s rights and needs as well as the rights of the parents. Those who look to the law for guidance will find that it is often unclear. The courts have asserted the parents’ rights to make decisions concerning the child’s treatment, in so far as these accord with the child’s welfare. Children have the right to be consulted about decisions concerning their welfare. Some people see an anomaly in relation to treatment in that, while a court has overruled in the case of a competent child’s right to refuse treatment, a child considered competent may initiate consultation and consent to treatment without their parents’ knowledge or consent. The child’s right to confidentiality appears to override the parent’s right to the information parents need if they are to be aware of, let alone contribute to, decisions about treatment. In addition practitioners will need to consider the implications of the Human Rights Act.
The Convention defines a ‘child’ as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger. The Committee on the Rights of the Child, the monitoring body for the Convention, has encouraged States to review the age of majority if it is set below 18 and to increase the level of protection for all children under 18.

The Convention applies to all children, whatever their race, religion or abilities; whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. It doesn’t matter where children live, what language they speak, what their parents do, whether they are boys or girls, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis.

The best interests of children must be the primary concern in making decisions that may affect them. All adults should do what is best for children. When adults make decisions, they should think about how their decisions will affect children. This particularly applies to budget, policy and law makers.

Governments have a responsibility to take all available measures to make sure children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled. When countries ratify the Convention, they agree to review their laws relating to children. This involves assessing their social services, legal, health and educational systems, as well as levels of funding for these services. Governments are then obliged to take all necessary steps to ensure that the minimum standards set by the Convention in these areas are being met. They must help families protect children’s rights and create an environment where they can grow and reach their potential. In some instances, this may involve changing existing laws or creating new ones. Such legislative changes are not imposed, but come about through the same process by which any law is created or reformed within a country.
3.3 Give examples from own practise of supporting children to asses and risk manage
Risk: High That Child P with harm herself or others
Who is at risk Child P and all others
History and likelihood of this occurring Triggers Child P has been diagnosed with mild Aspergers Syndrome and has a history of impulsive behaviour.
Child P has thoughts of anger and aggression to others who she believes has upset her and has verbalized that she wishes to hurt/kill someone.

has verbalized that she likes to see others hurt
Child P has broken mirrors, crockery, and windows and does this on a regular basis.

Child P has a history of self harm
Child P has taken cutlery from the kitchen and attempted to damage property and herself. More recently she has been found with a large, sharp knife and said she wanted to hurt someone.

Sophie hides sharp objects in the cushion covers, under mattress and in the garden for future use.
Child P has set fire to a carpet upstairs in the unit and she does not acknowledge the danger around this.
Potential harm /severity Child P may seriously harm herself or others.
Protective factors Child P has a good relationship with most staff.

Level of risk High
Management of risk
Child P needs support to think about and process incidents of conflict in the home and school. If Child P makes threats to harm others staff must maintain a high profile in the unit and assess the situation regularly. Staff can use diverting methods when intervening.

All incidents must be fully recorded and reported to the relevant agencies.

Breakages must be removed at the first available instance.
If there is an immediate risk of harm to others police should be called. i.e, she has a knife and is threatening to use it. Staff must keep themselves and the other young women safe.

If Sophie has sharp items in her room staff should negotiate with her to encourage her to hand them in.

All sharp implements such as knives and scissors will be kept locked up in the office and checked every day. Sharp items will be kept to a minimum. Sharp items should be used to a minimum.

Child B will not have normal mirrors in her room.
Room searches must be carried out where there is a concern about Child B hoarding sharp objects. These must be done with two people and be recorded on the room search form
Child B is not allowed to hold lighters and must be supervised when lighting up cigarettes.

LINKWORK SESSIONS, PLANNED DIRECT WORK, YW MEETING & ACTIVITIES
DATE TYPE BRIEF DETAILS
1011.11 One to one support Child P was upset about not having access to razors. She discussed how she felt she could not trust herself to not hurt someone at school as she had planned to retaliate if any of the y/w tried to hurt her.
She also expressed how she knew sometimes she said things she shouldn’t. But she felt she had been through a lot and she was fed up with people not believing her. Child P talked at length about her being racist and that she wanted to change but it may take some time. She said she did not have many friends and she may not have helped herself by the things she said. I asked her when she thought it all started she said it was a number of things but she did have a friend who was a boy called Jermaine who had been knocked over by a car who was her only real friend in year eight. She also said her sister had done a lot of things which she got blamed for she said she liked her sister but yet at the same time she also did not like her sister. She also said she had self harmed over the week end on the stomach and showed staff where she had self harmed there were superficial scratches on her stomach. She said she had self harmed before and felt it was a release when she became angry and so not getting hold of any razors made her angrier. I said to Child P she needed to deal with her anger in another way I suggested maybe she could write things down. She said she had a Diary She then read to me some of the things she had written which all sounded negative I suggested she write something positive each day no matter what day she had or how simple it was. Sophie appeared to be in a better mood at the end of the conversation and later came down stairs to have something to eat.
16.11.11 Debrief after psychological assessment Following her psychological assessment, staff CP and MJ spent time with Child P, talking about how she felt.
Child P expressed that she felt drained and could not deal with more appointments.

When asked how she was settling in, she said that she felt jealous of the other residents and thought that they ‘fit in’ more than her. Staff reassured her that they are all of equal importance and said that Child P is still settling in and building relationships.

20.11.11 Conversation/
direct work Child P requested to go for a walk after dinner which I agreed to do with her. Child P spoke of having a low confidence and described several occasions when she was sexually assaulted by men, from the age of 11, the last being when she was picked up at a bus stop and raped by a man professing to be a mini cab driver. Child P spoke about having poor a relationship with her last foster carer and losing her temper with her. I described other ways Child P may vent her anger and frustrations and also how she should keep herself safe, Child P went on to say that she felt ‘ugly’ and unattractive and had little regard for how she looks. Child P said that often she found it difficult to deal with her emotions and didn’t always ‘think before she spoke’ and was aware that this often got her into trouble.

We spoke about the racism comment she had made recently and I suggested that Child P would not like it if some referred to her in a derogatory way. Child P said that if she called someone a ‘nigger’ she wasn’t actually referring to them rather their ancestors. I tried to explain such a comment would also cause offence and possibly a physical altercation in some situations. Child P said she would give our discussion some thought but recognised that she needed support with it. I commended Child P for walking away to her room when another young woman becomes verbally aggressive to her earlier on.
01.03.12 One-to-One
support Child P was taken by staff member AG for a long drive to provide her with some space from the other residents. During the journey they discuss Child P resent behaviour and talked a about the importance of keeping safe. Child P appeared to have enjoyed the drive.
D/601/1696
4 Understand appropriate responses to accident, incident emergencies and illness in work settings and off site visits
4.1 Explain the policies and procedures of the setting or services in response to accidents, incidents emergencies and illness.

Children live in a healthy environment where their physical, emotional and psychological health is promoted and where they are able to access the services to meet their health needs
DoH National Minimum Standards for Children’s Homes 2011 and
Children’s Homes Regulations 2001as amended 2013.

Policy and Procedure no: A3 Good Health and Well-being
Policy and Procedure no: A9 Medication Management ; Consent to Medical Treatment
Policy and Procedure no: F1 Health and Safety Policy
Policy and Procedure no: A5 Alcohol, smoking and Substance Misuse
The residential homes, school and grounds and school and it’s vehicles are maintained in accordance with health and safety regulations. The care team are provided with appropriate training to promote and manage the safety of the young people. We work to reduce risk of accidents occurring and reduce incidents of self harm.

All activities both supervised and unsupervised are risk assessed. Higher risk activities where substantial or unusual hazards are involved must have a recorded assessment made. These activities must be supervised by persons holding a relevant qualification to supervise the activity concerned, this must be awarded by a recognised national body. Prior written consent must be obtained from the placing authority or the parent when the placing authority does not have parental responsibility.
Health and Safety of the home must be monitored by carers to identify and take action relating to potential hazards, in line with Policy and Procedure no: F1 Health and Safety Policy.
Carers must observe all aspects of Health & Safety in line with the Health and Safety Policy to minimise risk of accidents occurring.

Sharp implements and tools must be accounted for and held in a secure locked cabinet when not in use. Contractors must be made aware of procedure and supported to work safely. Carers must supervise the use of any such items within the home.

First aid, minor illness, treatment and administration of medication must be given by carers who are trained first aiders and competent in medication administration. New carers will be overseen by trained carers in all circumstances.
Fully equipped First Aid boxes must be kept in each home and in each vehicle used to carry the young people. The manager of the home must ensure that suitable arrangements exist to keep First Aid boxes equipped.

When an incident/accident occurs the carers must risk assess the situation and administer first aid as appropriate.
Where medical attention is required, carers must accompany the young person to the closest Accident and Emergency Department or, in the event of the young person not being fit to be transported, an ambulance should be called.

A young person must not be moved if there is a risk of further harm i.e. if they has fallen or something has fallen on them, unless there is immediate danger from fire, gas or dangerous structures. Carers must dial 999 and request an ambulance/ emergency services.

If a young person is unconscious they must be placed in the recovery position, making sure that her airway is clear and they must be monitored by carers. Refer to guidance for management of an unconscious person Policy and procedure no: A5 Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Misuse
Carers must manage the environment surrounding the injured young person, including support to peers. Assistance may be required from on call or the other home.
Protective equipment is provided for use by carers administering first aid treatment, including the application of ointments. This is to ensure that there is no risk of cross contamination.

A record must be made of all accidents and injuries sustained including self inflicted injuries in the Accident and Injuries Log and the health section of the young person’s Daily Log . Accidents must also be recorded in the young person accident book. An incident report must also be completed where the accident or injury was for all serious accidents or injuries.

When a young person needs to see a doctor or is taken to hospital, the Manager/ On Call Manager must be informed as soon as possible. An incident report must be completed. The Placing Authority Social Worker or Out of Hours Social Worker and parent (where consistent with the child plan) must be informed.
If a young person self-harms and requires treatment at an A. ; E. Department they are likely to be assessed by the Duty Mental Health Nurse before being discharged.

Where a young person is admitted to hospital the home manager or on call manager and the Placing Authority Social worker, EDT or other relevant person must be informed immediately.

Where a serious accident, injury or illness is sustained by a young person attended to by Ambulance or A ; E Department and an, Ofsted must be notified in line with Reg 31 and Sched 5 of the Children’s Home Regulations 2001(as amended). This would include where a young person is attended to by ambulance, A&E or other medic and diagnosed to have sustained a serious injury,
All accidents are monitored by the Registered Manager and notification is made to RIDDOR where applicable.

Carers training are provided in Medication Administration, First Aid, Health & Safety and the Management of Self Harm.

Emergency response
If there are concerns that a young person is in crisis, is at immediate risk and needs psychiatric care:
If it is one of the days the team psychologist is available advice and guidance should be sought from them.

Within surgery hours, contact the GP for an emergency appointment. The GP will be able to make an initial assessment and advise the most appropriate course of action.

After surgery hours, attend the A&E Department at East Surrey Hospital. The young person will need to see a Duty Psychiatrist and can be admitted if necessary.

These circumstances would include a young person presenting behaviour that places her or others at risk and when a police response is deemed to be inappropriate. For example, where it is believed the young person may be have suicidal ideation.
Identify the correct procedures for recording and reporting accidents, incidents, injuries signs of illness and other emergencies.

A record of all accidents and incidents (that require first aid or medical intervention)must be recorded on the general log to provide an overview that relates to all the young people on the Accident file
An ‘accident sheet’ from the young person’s Accident Book must be completed for each incident with concise details of accident/incident and action taken, the record is then removed and filed on the relevant young person’s case file
A ‘carer accident record sheet’ and ‘post-accident assessment form’, must be completed by the manager for any carer involved in an accident/incident where an injury occurred, this is filed on the carers personnel file at Head Office.

References;
Credits to Academia for questions 1.3 to the end of workbook.
Credits to Marteen Johnson for creating this workbook.

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