DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & SURVEYING
UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY OF MARA
IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY AND HEALTH
AT THE WORKPLACE
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF RESEARCH
It is generally recognized that safer and healthier workplaces are, along with viable advantage, one of firm’s major objectives, as they can improve productivity, boost employees’ morale and reduce costs (Thompson, 1997). Starbuck and Farjoun (2005) clearly illustrate the need of supplementing traditional safety practices (inspections) with the management of organizational learning when describing the Columbia disaster in 2003. During the course of this evolution, firms have concluded to exclusively rely on physical or tangible recourses characteristic of the traditional safety and health interventions such as safer technology or non-contaminating raw materials. They have provided some preliminary evidence on the part of organizational knowledge in building safer and healthier workplaces. The objective is to improve rather than replace management-driven safety (Teizer et al., 2010).
Safety and healthy environments are important elements that contribute to the health and well-being of workers, their families and the broader community surrounding (Glanz and Mullis,1988) Jeffery et al., 1994; French et al., 2001; Matson Koffman et al., 2005). The purpose of this group was to provide a forum for organizations in Atlantic Canada to share knowledge and experience on workplace health.
Buildings not only include supporting structures, but also a multiply of integrated hardware (e.g. building services) and software (e.g. property management) that boost our living and working conditions. Whether, how many life-enhancing services are provided, buildings must still have, at least, one thing in common with caves. The most major requirements, namely safety and health, remain unchanged. We need buildings to protect us from external threats, such as weather and street pollutants or any disaster. This paper is arranged as follows, Section 2 carriages the background of the research field. Section 3 explains the methodology of reviewing existing literature although Section 4 details of results and data analysis. Finally, the paper will finish with some conclusions and recommendation for better improvement.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
A problem statement is a brief piece of writing that usually comes at the beginning of a report or proposal to explain the problem or issues the document is addressing to the reader. In general, a problem statement will outline the basic facts of the problem.
Some of buildings have use insource or whether use outsources profession in management of the building. The issue is when there are occurred problem such lack of maintenance and management of the building. This is due to the how the management and what the solution to the problem. Time delaying to maintain and repair the problem happen maybe causes by the limitation of budget or expenses that may affect the safety and health of the worker in the building. The lack of a common consensus has often resulted in problems such as under-maintenance and the proliferation of unauthorized building works, which have been widely discussed by Lai and Ho (2001), Leung and Yiu (2004) and Yiu et al. (2004).
Furthermore, the problem happens due to inadequate health and safety policies on infrastructure of the building that affected the worker in the building. Unlike the observable characteristics of a building (e.g. exterior design and ancillary facilities), its health and safety performance is usually unknown before it is inhabited (Chau et al., 2005)
In Hong Kong a number of building connected accidents have happened increase, leading us to question the extent to which our buildings have fulfilled the basic requirements of health and safety. The problem is due to lack of health monitoring and surveillance among the worker whether the director of the company or the employees. (Chau et al, 2005).
Lastly, the issue is involve of external walls are crack and holed, owing to its sub-tropical climate with high temperature, high humidity, and frequent rainfalls. These problems are usually found in the building finishes such as rendering and mosaic tiles. Those materials use for external renderings are cement, lime and sand together with water and, sometimes, an admixture (Monks, 1988). The structural alter, and drainage connections not complying with the relevant regulations (HKSAR Buildings Department 2010) due to less proactive hazard control and prevention.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Research objectives are the statements that the research study will try to achieve. It provides the guidelines for establishing a research agenda of activities in implement the research process. Research objectives are initially obtained from the problem statement which develops research questions and research hypothesis (Sekaran, 2000).
According to the problem statements that obtained from a few valid sources, three objectives have been designed to be carrying out in this research. The objectives of this research are focus Implementation of safety and health toward building and the ways the property management department manage the building. Therefore, the objectives of this research are as follows:
a) To identify the reason of lack of safety and health of the building management.
b) To determine the ways to improve the safety and health toward buildings.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Research questions are the researcher’s translation of the research problem into a specific need for inquiry. The goal for defining the problem is to state the research questions clearly and to have well-formulated hypotheses. The researchers questions will be answered by the selected respondent in achieve the research objectives. Basically, the research questions should be related to the research objectives. Thus, the questions of this research are as follows:
i. It is the building implement the safety and health management?
ii. What are the ways to improve safety and health system toward building?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
In this research the scope of this research in Ipoh, Perak is due to no researches that have done yet about the implementation of safety and health toward building. The respondent in this research will be the worker in the building. The questionnaire will be distributed to worker and then guide and help them in answering the questionnaire.
The scope of the focused on:-
1) The building that operate more than 2 years and above
2) The worker in the building involve
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
1) Data Collection
Data collection is very important thing to doing the research whether by using primary and secondary data. For the primary data, the researcher must do the face to face interview in order to get the information but there some possibility that the respondent do not give cooperation to research that will be made because this research not give advantages for them. For secondary data, the researcher must find the most accurate data in order to fulfill the requirement of research that have to searching on related topic on doing this research.
2) Time Constrain and money uses
Limitation for the researcher is time factor. The study will be conduct at final year of study. Therefore, the case study such as far from the places study that has to take time to finish up. Besides making the research also have limitation on the money uses that more money needed to print the questioners also have to go far doing the interviews with other person that give the challenging for the researcher because not income yet base on the loan, or helping support from family income.
3) Difficult to get respondent
To making research more struggle information is very needed from the questioners. Beside to get the quality of the respondent that takes time because many of the people need time to answer our questioners.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The significant of the study is referred to the research objectives which the objectives are to establish relationship between safety and health impacts of the building, to learn how organizations and businesses describe workplace health, to determine the causes and recommendations were proposed to the building management.
This study is related to the role of the property management department to promoting a safe and health at workplace environment.
The important of the research toward the safety and health of worker in the building to avoid the accident case happen that involve the safety of the worker where it so many accident or injuries other threat on building because of the not implementation safety and health compliance toward the building. This research will make the worker aware and be alert whether their workplace safely to use.
ii. Property manager
The property manager will explore and monitor the safety and health policies apply toward building. This research is to remind the property manager to survey and measure the building is safe to use and to be maintained. The idea the management has the responsibility for ensuring the safety of the working environment by implementing the appropriate system and conducting appropriate activities to reduce workplace accidents (Goetsch,2011)
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research approach or methodology is the process where describes the procedure and technique that will be used during carrying out the research. The researcher will use this process and procedure to obtain the valid data and information for the research. Besides that, it’s very important for researcher to exposed the best method for collecting data for example the data collection whether primary data or secondary data and the sampling method which is prepared the questionnaires for the study.
Figure 1.8: Flowchart of the Process Research
1.8.1 First Stage: Preliminary Study
i. Defining the problem statement
The first stage in that should to carry out in the research process is the preliminary study. The preliminary study means the process to identify the problem statement and research objectives. The problem statement is the brief piece of writing that usually comes at the beginning of a report or proposal to explain the problem or issues the document is addressing to the reader. In general, a problem statement will outline the basic facts of the problem, explain why the problem matters, and will lead the researcher to doing research about the issues in order to pinpoint a solution as quickly and directly as possible. The problem statement obtains from the specific sources such as journal, articles, book, newspaper and the other material. For this research, the identify problem statement of implementation safety and health toward building.
ii. Defining the research objectives
The objectives should be narrow deep and must focus on the study in order to find an answer or solution of research. It is important to guides information to be collected and facilitate the methodology development and the finding of the research must be achieved the research objective. Besides that, the objectives should be clear to ensure the legal and validity of the research.
1.8.2 Second Stage: Literature Review
The review of literature is the one of the important steps in conduct the research. The literature review is the process of reading, evaluating and make the summary scholarly materials about the certain topic. The purpose of the literature review is to deliver to the readers about the study that already done and the ideas and knowledge that already exist on the certain topic of research. Besides that, the literature review is to make the confirmation about the problem are perceived as significant and relevant.
1.8.3 Third Stage: Data Collection
Data collection is the systematic approach gathering process the information and data that has obtained to answer the research problem. The data can get from various sources such as questionnaires, interviews, existing records, observations and others. Generally, there are two methods in collect the data which is primary data and secondary data. For this research, the both method are used in collection of data. The primary data which is the quantitative method has been use by distribute the questionnaires to the selected housing developers. Besides that, for the secondary data that used in this research including journal, articles, books, newspapers and others
1.8.4 Fourth Stage: Data Analysis
The data analysis is the process of evaluate the data that the researcher has been collected regarding to the topic that carry out by the researcher. Analysis is the method for organize the data in such a way the questions of the research can be answered and hypothesis can be tested. The method for analysis the data should be convenient with the carry out research. For this research, the methods that has been used for the data analysis is by used the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software.
1.8.5 Fifth Stage: Conclusion and Recommendations
At the end of the study, the researcher will described the conclusion and recommendations with the aim to comment the research paper on implementation safety and health toward building. The opinion from the research towards the study as well as an answer that obtained from the respondent and through the questionnaires will be describes as the conclusion and recommendation that will significant to other people or future. Besides that, the recommendation must be relate with the objectives and question of the research.