Site Loader
Get a Quote

Faculty of Engineering and Life Sciences
BBS 3123 SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION PROJECT PROPOSAL
EXTRACTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PIGMENT FROM MICROALGAE ISOLATED FROM SELANGOR
NAME : SARASWATHY SELVAKUMAR
MATRIC NUMBER : 4165000521
LECTURER NAME : MADAM ROSHANI
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Unicellular microalga is a perfect source of natural pigments which consists of lipids, proteins, carotenoids, pigments, vitamins, and sterols that have commercial valuable applications. Microalgae have been used for several commercial purposes such as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. An algae sample is to be obtained from pond or lakes at Selangor for pigment extraction. Especially Therapeutic supplements from micro-algae comprise an important market in which compounds such as ?-carotene, astaxanthin, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) such as DHA and EPA and polysaccharides such as ?-glucan dominate. The dominating species of microalgae in commercial production includes Isochrysis, Chaetoceros, Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina) and Dunaliella. After the extraction of pigments from microalgae isolated from Selangor, by using spectrometric analyses, those pigments will be quantified and the extraction process will be assessed regarding rapidity, reproducibility and extraction yields.
2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
In Malaysia, there has been active research on microalgae biotechnology for the past 30 years, tapping into the potential of our rich microalgae resources for high-value products and applications in wastewater treatment and assessment of environmental. Here the climate is more favourable to grow microalga. This project is mainly to conduct this facts:
2.1 Pigments for humans health
The fact that mainly pigments from microalgae can be used in person’s health by extracting and introducing an environmentally safe pigment. As we know microalga are environmental friendly and they are biodegradable. For example, as a dietary supplement Spirulina is being cultured in several countries.

2.2 Low cost extraction techniques
Using HPLC analyses the important pigments characteristic of algal classes can be identified. The chromatographic technique will separates pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoids from isolated microalgae from Selangor.

3.0 OBJECTIVES
The objectives for this study are outlined below:
To extract the pigments from microalgae using Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by using different solvents such as methanol, acetone and ethanol
To analyses the characterization of the pigment discovered from microalgae from Selangor
4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
4.1 Overview of microalgae
Microalgae are the microorganisms which are industrially valuable by producing environmental friendly pigments ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”2320-0847″,”abstract”:”This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Saifullah”,”given”:”AZA”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Karim”,”given”:”Abdul”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ahmad-Yazid”,”given”:”Aznijar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”03″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″},”page”:”330-338″,”title”:”Microalgae: an alternative source of renewable energy”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”03″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73474788-4b2c-48b3-a947-e1fc68fb7449″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Saifullah, Karim, & Ahmad-Yazid, 2014)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Saifullah, Karim, & Ahmad-Yazid, 2014)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Saifullah, Karim, & Ahmad-Yazid, 2014)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Saifullah, Karim, ; Ahmad-Yazid, 2014).By having simple cellular structure they can convert solar energy efficiently. As the cells of microalgae grow in aqueous suspension, they have efficient access of water, CO2 and other nutrients ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”2320-0847″,”abstract”:”This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Saifullah”,”given”:”AZA”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Karim”,”given”:”Abdul”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ahmad-Yazid”,”given”:”Aznijar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”03″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″},”page”:”330-338″,”title”:”Microalgae: an alternative source of renewable energy”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”03″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73474788-4b2c-48b3-a947-e1fc68fb7449″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Saifullah et al., 2014)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Saifullah et al., 2014)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Saifullah et al., 2014).
4.2 Application of pigments (Commercial Applications of Microalgae Pauline)
i) Microalgae can be used to enhance the nutritional value of food
ii) Microalgae play a crucial role in aquaculture
iii) Microalgae can be used in cosmetics
4.3 Micro algal cultivation system
There are some of the cultivation systems for microalgae. Cultivation systems being developed include:
4.3.1 Open pond system
Open cultivation system is a traditional way to cultivate microalgae. Moreover it is inexpensive system which has some disadvantages which is widely used. Open pond systems use shallow ponds, from about one acre to several acres in size, in which the algae are exposed to natural solar radiation (sunlight) which they convert into biomass.
4.3.2 Closed photo-bioreactor system
Photo-bioreactors (PBR) is closed equipment in form of tubes, plates which allow accurate process control such as light availability, nutrient, CO2 and O2 concentrations and temperature. Risk of contamination is low and high volumetric productivity compared to open pond system.

4.3.3 Comparison of Open pond system and closed photo-bioreactor system
There are some differences between both systems such as different algal density, volume of water, productivity of biomass and temperature of algal culture.

Factors to be compared Open pond system Closed photo-bioreactor system
Risk of contamination High Low
Water utilization High Low
Volumetric productivity Low High
Cell density Low High
Energy input Low Low
Energy efficiency Low High
Capital expenditures Low Medium
4.4 Extraction methods
4.4.1 Extraction by different solvents
4.4.1.1 Methanol
4.4.1.2 Acetone
4.4.1.3 Ethanol
4.4.2 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)

Figure 1.0 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) complete set up
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is to extract pigments from microalgae using supercritical carbon dioxide instead of an organic solvent. The supercritical fluid state is when a fluid is above its critical temperature and critical pressure when it is between the typical gas and liquid state. Then it will manipulate the temperature and pressure of the sample which can solubilize the sample and will proceed to extraction. The sample will be in extraction vessel and CO2 will be pressurized only to dissolve the sample. Then the sample is transferred to fraction collector to get depressurized so that the material is to precipitate.

4.5 Spectrometric analysis of pigments
4.5.1 Paper chromatography
4.5.2 Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
4.5.3 High pressure chromatography (HPLC)
5.0 RESEARCH METHOD
5.1 Strain and culture conditions
The strain of microalgae will be isolated from Selangor. It will be grown up in a self-made culture medium in Erlenmeyer flasks, at room temperature and under natural light cycles. The composition of the synthetic culture medium (per liter) are 35 g NaCl and 1 mL of ALGAL solution. The composition of the ALGAL solution (per liter) was:
100 mL of iron solution (5.3 g of ferric citrate monohydrate, FeC6H5O7.H2O; 5.4 g of iron oxide,
Fe2O3; 2.54 g of iron chloride hexahydrate, FeCl3.6H2O; 7.4 g of EDTA);
100 mL of micronutrients solution (136.4 mg ZnCl2; 161.4 mg ZnSO4.7H2O; 197.8 mg
MnCl2.4H2O; 242 mg NaMoO4.2H2O; 16.5 mg CoCl3: 23.8 mg of Cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate,
CoCl2.6H2O; 24.9 mg CuSO4.5H2O; 2.4 g EDTA; 492 mg MgSO4.7H2O);
800 mL of macronutrients solution (170 g NaNO3 and 13.6 g KH2PO4).

The pH is to be adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH or HCl 1M. Solutions will be sterilized before use. All the assays to check the different methods of quantifying chlorophylls were performed with biomass from the same cell growth phase.

5.2 Preparation of the sample
5.3 Extraction process
Overall three solvent are to be used in pigment extraction which methanol, acetone and ethanol.
6.0 EXPECTED RESULT
6.1 Effect of Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
6.2 Effect of different extraction solvents
7.0 EXPECTED BUDGET
Budget Price
Material and sample RM 1000
Chemical RM 1500
Analysis RM 1000
Total RM 3500
8.0 REFERENCES
Spolaore, P., Joannis-Cassan, C., Duran, E., ; Isambert, A. (2006). Commercial applications of microalgae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101(2), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1263/JBB.101.87
9.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This completion of the proposal could not have been possible without the participation and assistance of my supervisor Madan Farah and my co supervisor Dr ________. Their endless support, kind and understanding spirit during my thesis research are much sincerely appreciated. To all my friends and relatives have supported me morally, financially and transportation, thank you.

Thank you.

Post Author: admin