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INTRODUCTION

Employees are the blood stream of any organisation. The success or disaster of the firm depends on its employee performance. This assignment will discuss how performance is affected by various factors like personality, culture, training and development.

Organizational culture means the values, attitudes and beliefs reflected in the mission, goals, and practices of the organization or in other words, organisational culture is the shared values and beliefs that guide how members of an organisation approach their work and interact with each other. It is expressed through the behaviours, customs and practices team members collectively display.

One of the main constituents of a successful company and company culture are training and development. Armstrong (2001) defines training as the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning, which occurs as a result of education, instructions and development and planned experience.

Likewise, development is a long term education process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

Even with perfect design and enthusiastic trainees, positive change requires organizational support (Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis Lamastro, 1990). An organization adopts policies, planning and effort to promote and to encourage employees for attending training programs. This will positively affect training effectiveness. The organizational culture, by creating a supporting context for training, plays a crucial role in the process of knowledge and skill acquisition and their on the job application (Burke & Baldwin, 1999). Moreover, the managerial commitment is one component of organization culture, which means the management should adopt the innovation, values, norms and attitudes to support the trainees and their performance in the organization.

The overall objective of this assignment is to exhibit the importance of training and development, reward and recognition, and teamwork, for predicting employees’ organizational commitment. That implies that corporate culture recognizes and emphasizes the importance of teamwork in facilitating employees’ ability to work together to get a job done (Morrow, 1997). Both recognition and rewards have motivating effects on people at work.

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

Myles (2000), states that a company that seeks to train and develop its employees well and reward them for their performance has its employees in turn motivated and thus are more likely to be engaged in their work hence improving performance and loyalty to their company. The same employees, being the point of contact with customers will provide better service, leading to more business and more referrals from the satisfied customers. The increase in sales through referrals and repeat businesses will translate into an increase in business profits thus improving shareholders’ investment. Suppliers will also be eager to do business with the company due to its financial strength and its positive reputation. The company is therefore able to negotiate friendly purchase terms with suppliers.

On the other hand, personalities of staffs also affect the company’s culture. It is useful to compare your personality with the culture of the organizational unit in which you work. In addition to the business unit, however, a fit with the company as a whole would offer hope for a more satisfying career as you continue to move through the organization. For some people, a personal/culture fit may exist only in the functional area in which they work. For example, an adventurous and non-conformist individual could match the less risk-averse, more creative subculture of the Design Department of a garment factory, even though the overall company might be rigidly structured and have a low comfort level with ambiguity.

Furthermore, company’s culture is affected and changed by training and development. Competitive companies need to adapt to circumstances and quickly change their organization so that it remains competitive. Providing training can be a good practice for maintaining and employing qualified workforce, and sufficient training for current employees can ensure their job satisfaction. Training is correlated to job satisfaction. Training is important both for employers and employees of an organization, especially in terms of increasing job satisfaction.

Organizational culture was expected to serve as a moderator for the relationship between training and job satisfaction. There is a significant interaction effect between workplace learning and organizational culture with task performance (Daryoush et al., 2013).

Good training and development programs help an organization retain the right people and grow profits. As the battle for top talent becomes more competitive, employee training and development programs are more important than ever. Hiring top talent takes time and money, and how an organization engages and develop that talent from the time they are first onboarded impacts retention and business growth.

The World Bank represents a particularly difficult case of organizational culture change. Its formal goal—development—is ambiguous. The institution itself is a peculiar mix of a philanthropic foundation, a university and a bank. As an international organization, it is owned by the governments of the world, with a resident board of directors and their staffs who are ever present and ready to second-guess the management.

In a broad sense, the World Bank is a great success. It’s easy to forget that fifty years ago, India, China and Korea were seen as basket cases requiring Western charity in perpetuity: today, they are independent economic powers in their own right, as a result in part to the implementation of economic policies that the World Bank has been coaching them over many years. But the remaining development problems in the poorest countries, particularly in Africa, remain intractable.

An organizational culture where employees are considered an integral part of the growth process of the organization fosters employee commitment towards the organization. They align their goals and objectives with those of the organization and feel responsible for the overall well-being of the organization. As their efforts are in turn appreciated by the management and suitably rewarded, they have immense job satisfaction. In such organizational cultures, the employees are committed to achieving their goals and thus have a positive effect on the overall performance of the organization.

In organizations where managers are not facilitators but taskmasters,employees live with fear and distrust and work is nothing but a daily chore. Since they are not involved in the overall organizational goals, they do not understand the implications of their tasks and hence may not be committed to achieving them. An organization where there is no cooperation between different departments ends up having employees working in silos or working towards undermining the efforts of the other departments which is detrimental to the overall health of the organization.

Now we discuss about training and development in more details.

Training is the process of equipping the workforce with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to tackle the job responsibilities. Training is an organized activity for increasing the technical skills of the workers to modify them to try to to explicit jobs with efficiency. Training refers to bridging the gap between the current performance and the standard desired performance. Training could be given through different methods such as on the coaching and mentoring, peers cooperation and participation by the subordinates. This teamwork enable employees to actively participate on the job and produces better performance, hence improving organizational performance. There are several types of trainings that can be provided to the employees on the basis of their job types and some of them are discussed below:
Technical Training: It includes training of employees regarding certain softwares and other technological aspects that they use in their workplace. This will help in division of work among them. For an instance, let us consider our organisation has planned to switch to the latest version of Microsoft Office for which everyone need technological training to perform the job effectively.
Quality Training: This type of training contributes in production of high quality goods. Maintaining ISO standards for the products needs training on it so that company would not face any challenges with its quality.
Skills Training: Skill training mainly focuses to actually use their potential to sharpen their ability to perform certain job role. Training can be provided with the help help of a mentor who can individually guide the participants. For example, an administrative assistant can be trained to receive the official phone calls.
Soft skills: These skills are indirectly related to job role but are vital such as personality traits, behavior, socialising, body languages and communication. Some behavioral trainings are provided for the employees when they are on the job.
Professional Training: These kinds of trainings are basically external providing certain qualification or certification in order to perform and behave professionally. For example, a tax accountant should be up to date with tax laws.
Team Training: Team training helps to empower teams to improve decision making, problem solving, and team-development skills. It can help to improve communication resulting better productive businesses.
Managerial Training: This training is provided when someone is ready to take on a management role.
Safety Training: Safety training is vital to make assure an organization is meeting OSHA standards. It can include disaster planning, food safety, evacuation planning and workplace violence prevention.
Primary objectives of training are:

To produce job related knowledge and information to the employees.
To impart skills among the employees consistently in order that they’ll learn quickly.
To originate amendment within the attitudes of the employees towards fellow employees, supervisor and therefore the organization.
To enhance the productivity of the employees and therefore the organization.
To scale back the quantity of accidents by providing safety coaching to the employees.
To form the employees handle materials, machines and instrumentation with efficiency and so to examine wastage of your time and resources.
To organize employees for promotion to higher jobs by transmission to advanced skills.

Armstrong (2001) indicates individual development is the progression by individuals in their career with guidance, encouragement and help from the manager. Training and Development improves the workforce competence in order to create a competitive advantage and contribute to organizational success. By offering the training and development opportunities employers help employees develop their own competitive advantage and ensure long term employability.

Industries are constantly changing and so it is important for a business to develop to avoid being left behind. It’s also important to make sure the business is complying with any industry regulations, which can be achieved through ongoing training, making sure your staff’s skills and knowledge are up-to-date. New technology is being developed all the time and so it is not sufficient to run a one-off training session. Regular training needs to take place to ensure that staff are using all the latest technology comfortably and to its full potential. This can be achieved through implementing a customised staff IT training program. With regular training, a business can more easily identify any gaps in the market and skill gaps within the existing workforce. By identifying these gaps early, there is time to train staff in these required areas so they can fulfil the role effectively. If training is provided as part of a longer development pathway, employees will have much more incentive to learn, participate in the session and put their new skills into practice. Through continued investment from the business, staff can have a much higher sense of job satisfaction, which can improve their motivation towards their work. This reduces employee turnover and increases productivity, which directly improves the profitability. It also prevents competitors from taking away your best employees by offering training incentives. All businesses want to have the best employees and so with ongoing training, this will not only mean better staff retention, but the business may also attract better talent from the start, as this gives the business a good image and is a key feature many people look for within their job search.

We are affirmative that training and development does affect staff interactions and group dynamics. Since group dynamics and team building are based fundamentally on the relationships among the people involved, it is both courteous and sensible to assure that the members are introduced to each other and that they are offered opportunities to get to know each other and to build relationships. A group or team with members who know each other well is likely to be more effective. People tend to offer more of them when they are with people whom they know than when they are with strangers. It is therefore a good idea to spend some time helping people get acquainted with one another. So, group dynamics can be altered by training and development in an organization.

Let us put one example, out of our own experience. This example is based on my experience in the web company called Longtail eMedia where I joined as a project manager and team leader in 2009. My task was to analyse requirements, assign jobs to each team member, monitor work progress and guide them wherever required. The teams and their workflow was a big mess at the beginning. I could figure out, what really was the problem in the company culture. I tried to establish a culture to work in a more organized manner by using useful tools, make proper task list for the day, start with a day’s plan, make habit of proper reporting format, etc. I also tried to train them informally once a fortnight to get them accustomed to trendy technologies and various programming techniques to get the job done in more cleaner, faster and efficient way. To my belief, this training and culture improvements, definitely helped the company take a better pathway towards company goals and sharpen the skill set of the team members.

Competitive advantage is defined as a superiority gained by a company once it will offer identical worth as its competitors, however at a cheaper price, or will charge higher costs by providing bigger worth through differentiation. Competitive advantage results from matching core competencies to the opportunities (Komer et al. 2015).

Employees are the assets of an organisation to gain a sustainable competitive advantage through training and development which enhances their abilities. Factors like globalisation, need for leadership, workforce diversity, advanced technology and so on has challenged the traditional focus on skills of teaching. Companies need to have an intellectual capital to compete which is possible by investment in training and development of its employees. When its staffs posses unique skills and abilities, competitors will not be able to imitate. Up-to-date knowledge and skills is crucial because certain skills may not be the priority for ages. Skills contributing to customer service and product development when links to business strategy, it leads to competitive advantage in the global market.

An organisation should train and develop its employees according to demand of time to assure that they can compete their competitors. Effective training can contribute to greater productivity, improved quality of work, motivation and commitment, better group dynamics, market responsiveness, technological innovation, minimum errors and finally better quality outcome that yields competitive advantage. No world-class economy is possible without world-class workforce. Training and development programme of a company bridges the present and future development needs of the workers and company. It focuses on market advancement, company’s performance, staffs retention, flexibility and adoption to changes in market.

Training and development of employees are crucial aspects for overall growth of the company. Their responses differ based on the culture of organisation in which they are engaged. Participants from a hierarchical culture will not be comfy with a basic introduction of ourselves, loose or broad agendas. In egalitarian cultures, participants tend to expect to find out from each other; they expect group action, feedback, opinions, discussion and dialogue. The trainer is seen as a peer and acknowledged as being there to facilitate the knowledge. By contract, in hierarchical cultures participants expect to be schooled by the professional, i.e. the trainer. Logic deducts that since this person is being paid, they need to be associate professional and so it’s necessary to take a seat, listen, take notes associated learn (and hopefully acquire a certificate at the tip too). However, the outcome of training programme would be fruitful (Komer et al. 2015).

Whilst training interventions can indeed change the whole organisation, the culture change scenario differs from ‘normal’ training. ‘Normal’ training is in pursuit of change in competencies in individuals. Change in culture involves change in the way things are done in the organisation – the normative behaviour of all. ‘Normal’ training can be used to change individual behaviours but culture requires change in collective behaviour.
Culture is literally “the way we do things around here”. A good example of a desirable culture is helping one another to get along and get things done. This particular example is well known and sweepingly called ‘organisational citizenship behaviours’.

Training and development presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees in all types of culture, but many employers in the current climate, find development opportunities expensive. Employees attending training sessions also miss out on work time which may delay the completion of projects.

As the number one pizza company in the world, Domino’s Pizza must balance many variables to effectively train employees and maintain a consistent, high-quality standard of food. However, for new employees, learning the menu and the pizza-making process can be challenging and time-consuming. They must know every item the restaurant sells, and how to quickly put the correct toppings in the right amounts for each type of pizza.

To help employees learn these skills and assess how well they’ve learned them, Domino’s created the Pizza Maker course. With three microlearning modules, Domino’s used simulations and gamification to engage, assess and reward employees to decrease onboarding time. By including competitive elements, both games encouraged new employees to beat their past scores, which drove speed to competency. The games build recipe knowledge for new employees and boost the recipe focus for long-term personnel, which leads to better accuracy and faster pizza making.

To keep all employee training easily accessible to learners, AllenComm created a learning portal specifically designed for three purposes: provide franchisees with complete control to customize how and what they assign and track for their team members, empower employees to master core skills, and empower managers and admins to optimize and validate employee progress.

This user-friendly platform organizes, delivers, and tracks the extensive training curriculum for the entire organization while providing individual learning paths custom-tailored for each employee. Thanks to the learning portal, franchisees create clear roadmaps to success for their team members, and their managers have direct oversight in that journey.

Now, discussing on how T&D impacts organisation culture, organizational culture shapes, influences, and redefines training programs that, in turn, shape, influence, and redefine structure culture. Moreover, culture analysis inside program coming up with can ultimately alleviate several of the issues that will arise throughout the implementation of a training and development program due to cultural resistance and/or clash of values between culture and coaching (Komar et al. 2015).

In addition, training and development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation, it also aids in organizational development i.e. organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. Training and development helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies thereby developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful employees and managers usually display. Training and development demonstrates a commitment to keeping employees on the cutting edge of knowledge and practice.

Relationship between training and corporate culture

Worker’s performance is additionally accomplished by some environmental factors such as company culture, organizational structure, job design, performance appraisal systems, power and politics prevailing within the firm and therefore the group dynamics. If the higher than mentioned issues exist within the firm, worker performance decreases due to lack of relevant information, skills and angle, however as a result of higher than mentioned hurdles. To form training effective and to ensure positive result of training on worker performance these components ought to be taken into thought. Beside this, staff feel a lot of committed to the firm, when they feel structure commitment towards them and therefore show higher performance. There is a direct correlation between effective training program and worker productivity, but to form it doable, it’s the responsibility of the managers to spot the factors that hinders training program resultiveness and may take necessary measures to neutralize their effect on employee performance. Additionally, prime level of worker commitment is accomplished if training achieve learning outcomes and improves the performance, each on individual and organizational level (Elnaga and Imran, 2013).

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