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Memory Strategies
Memory Strategies
Memory Strategies
Memory strategies are approaches used to develop the functioning of the memory. These approaches improve how the memory encodes, stores, and retrieves information (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2013). Different individuals have different memory levels and this can be seen when individuals respond differently after being presented with the same situation. Memory strategies help individuals improve their thinking process, which involves improving remembrance (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2013). Memory strategies are divided into two types, external and internal memory strategies. External strategies include the common things individuals do to improve their remembrance. These common activities may include setting alarms, using sticky notes, diaries, and using the calendar (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2013). Internal memory strategies include activities that occur internally or mentally to improve the brain in retaining information. Some of the internal memory strategies include mental visualization, repeating, and rehearsing (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2013).

Cognitive Mapping
Cognitive mapping involves creation of mental images in relation to the environment to improve memory remembrance. It can also be described as creating a picture in the mind about a location (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). This involves integrating and interpreting outside information into the mind until knowledge and understanding of the information is realized. Information is represented by a mental image, which can help individuals in acquiring, storing, and decoding information of physical locations (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). Important features of the environment are integrated into the memory. Cognitive mapping focuses on the important aspects of the environment, which can trigger remembrance, and not exclusively on the physical features of the location (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). Cognitive mapping occurs in the hippocampus system through the visual and the hearing system, which enable the mind to visualize images resulting to improved remembrance and decoding of information (Bailey & Pransky, 2014).
Cognitive maps can be used by the physically handicapped who better use sound and touch aspects to locate objects or places as opposed to normal individuals who use sight to locate objects (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). Individuals can create mental maps to provide their position and direction to a location in a given environment. Some of the visual images in detecting the location may include reference points, which aid the brain in remembering and interpreting information about an environment in a cognitive map. The cognitive map may also include position landmarks, which provide location details by comparing objects in different positions (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). Cognitive mapping may be influenced by the location and its proximity to the individual. Locations that are near will tend to be more familiar and known by the individuals more than locations that are far away from the individuals (Bailey & Pransky, 2014).
The size of the place will also determine cognitive mapping and large places are better recognized than other places. Large places will be better known due to their many activities and access to people, which will make them common places for everyone to have an idea about (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). Cognitive mapping may be also be influenced by social-cultural factors which are important cultural history of places. Cultural history brings distinction between places and its awareness to individuals. Some cultural occurrences will result to some places being better known than others are (Bailey & Pransky, 2014). The shape of the location or object that determines the place may also influence cognitive mapping. Some places or objects have distinctive shapes, which makes it easy for recognition. An example of a distinctive building is the Seattle Public Library in downtown Seattle (Bailey & Pransky, 2014).
Mnemonic Memory Strategy
This memory strategy helps individuals improve their memory remembrance of important information by introducing new information or new knowledge to prior knowledge. This technique involves relating new information to something that is accessible and meaning to the individuals (Horsley, 2014). This strategy will help in retaining and retrieving information. Mnemonic aims at using information that can be easy to relate to and can involve personal information, surprising information, and observable physical information. Mnemonics can be used in learning to aid in the remembrance of short poems, remembering phrases, and acronyms (Horsley, 2014). Researchers have provided information dividing the memory into two types, the natural memory, and the artificial memory. The natural memory is inborn and everyone uses this part of the memory instinctively while the artificial memory has to be trained and developed through learning and application of mnemonic techniques (Horsley, 2014).

Mnemonic techniques aid in improving the memory in retaining and retrieving of information by using information already stored in the natural memory to make remembrance easier. Some of the mnemonic techniques include music mnemonics where music can be used to help individuals remember important information and ideas just as they remember their favorite songs lyrics (Horsley, 2014). This can apply in helping to remember a list of items for students and in advertisements where the organizations use songs in advertising their products and this has led to increased product sale (Horsley, 2014). Another type of mnemonic technique is the name mnemonic, which is using the first letters of names or words to make a new word, which is easy to remember (Horsley, 2014). An example of this is the first letters of a mathematical formula BODMAS, which is (Brackets off, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction).

Positive Effects of Using Cognitive Mapping
Educators in studying how students solve learning problems can use cognitive mapping (Schneider, 2015). One of the challenges in education is the limited understanding in solving design problems, which can be experienced in engineering and design courses. By the use of cognitive mapping strategies, educators can be able to train their students to use cognitive strategies to improve their understanding and remembrance of designs and other important information about the course (Schneider, 2015). Most design courses like architecture involve creating mental images in the mind to help in understanding information on given tasks and by the use of cognitive mapping techniques, educators are able to understand and guide their students in complex designing problems (Schneider, 2015).
Cognitive mapping has positive effects on the students. Cognitive maps help students in exploring different ideas and the relationship between the ideas. This will improve students’ learning process and help the educators in teaching the students, as every student is able to use cognitive mapping (Schneider, 2015). Cognitive mapping can also help students in innovation programs. Cognitive maps enhance thinking from one concept to another. Research has indicated that innovation is directly related to knowledge and cognition. Cognitive mapping techniques help in the research process and influence the output of research methodologies, since it is one of the management research tools used by researchers in their research process (Schneider, 2015).

Positive Effects of Using Mnemonic Memory Strategy
Mnemonic memory strategy improves the memory’s ability to retain and retrieve information by making information easier to understand and remember. By using existing knowledge to connect new knowledge, concept and ideas are easily incorporated into the mind leading to improved knowledge (Duarte, 2015). Improved retention and retrieval of information will lead to improved performance for students in school and in other important areas of their profession. Mnemonic memory strategy can help in the learning of complex information and beneficial to every individual as learning is a continuous process and people must learn different things in their lives as they grow (Duarte, 2015).
Mnemonic memory strategy can be used at home to teach young children new information, which may include the alphabetic order and numerical orders (Duarte, 2015). Mnemonic memory strategy will promote better information retention and retrieval, which can result to improved performance by individuals in different aspects in their lives. Mnemonic memory strategy can also help individuals with difficulties in remembrance or poor memory recall. This can be in special education and this technique can positively impact special individuals in their learning process (Duarte, 2015).
Bailey, F., & Pransky, K. (2014). Memory at Work in the Classroom: Strategies to Help Underachieving Students. Alexandria: ASCD.

Duarte, A. (2015). The Wiley handbook on the cognitive neuroscience of memory. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry, R., & Mangun, G. (2013). Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (4th ed.). New York: Norton.

Horsley, K. (2014). Unlimited Memory: How to use advanced learning strategies to learn faster, remember more and be more productive. Wroclaw: TCK Publishing.

Schneider, W. (2015). Memory development from early childhood through emerging adulthood. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

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