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Oxidative stress and metabolic diseases

ABTRACT:-
Metabolic syndromes and obesity pathos – physiology it is big problem of global health. Metabolic syndrome is a collection of cardio metabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipid emia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome is often characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which an imbalance results between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species can best be described as double-edged swords; while they play an essential role in multiple physiological systems, under conditions of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction. Oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, kidney disease and cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and its major clinical manifestations (namely coronary artery disease, hypertension and diabetes).

INTRODUCTION:-
The major role play in the cellular dysfunction and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases is oxidative stress. The prerequisite of over life is oxygen. The normal cell metabolism the human body continuously the generating reactive oxygen species. Superoxide radical,The first reduction product of molecular oxygen has an
Unpaired electron in its outer orbit; as a result, it is an
Important source of hydro peroxides and toxic free radicals.mitochondria use the oxygen to generate enzymes reaction and energy in the cell in these energy are come from the of charged oxygen of free radicals. Superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl peroxyl ,alkoxyl and nitric acid the free various oxygen radicals. the ability of normal cell to detoxify the oxygen radicals the networkes through tha antioxidant of enzymes such as the enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase these all enzymes maintains the concentration of intercellular of NADPH and glutathione for important to the fuction of optimum of the defense mechanism of primary antioxidant.micronutrient such as selenium ,copper, iron,trivalent chromium, manganese to also maintain the enzymatic antioxidant activity defense mechanism of effective antioxidant.carotenplasmin,Vitamine C,Vitamine B6 and thr Vitamine E ,tocotrienols proanthycyanidans and bioflavooid very powerful dietary antioxidant.the most of the electron donors of antioxidant they react with the free radicals and then form harmless end products that is water.water protecting the cell to against the damage and other one is oxidative stress.

The many diseases are caused in the vthe imbalancing between the antioxidant mechanism and the oxidative stress that are favou the former.Acccumulated amount of radicals of oxygen can lipid peroxidize and make the structure of the membrane bilayer and tissue damage and the cellular dysfunction.In biochemicals track cellular damage include the changes in rendox state cause by oxidative stress.
The number of diseases may also caused by the oxidative stress some diseases may include the Alzheimer’s diseaseas , Parkinson’s diseases ,kidney diseases atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation,stroke. These diseases highly caused by the overproduction of free radical and oxidative damage the biochemicals and the dysfunction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

pathophysiology
oxidative stres Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules. These reactions are called oxidation. They can be beneficial or harmful.ANTIOXIDANT:
are molecules that can donate an electron to a free radical without making themselves unstable. This causes the free radical to stabilize and become less reactive.

DIESAES:-
Oxidative Stress as a Major Culprit in Kidney Disease in
Diabetes:-
Renal diesaes is characterized in diabetic patient the functional and the structural abnormalities of kidney.

The thinkness of the glomerluli basement membrane loss of glomerular epithelial. Mesangial expansion .GLUCOSE AS OUR PRIMARY FUEL SOURCE:-
Glucose is the most important factor to generate intercellular excessive ROS by hyperglycemia when the hyperglycemia in order to maintain exposed this condition is critical to when cells are decrease to through glucose across the plasma membrane into cytosol.

REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES:-
Activation of phagocyte the increase the generation of oxidant and also increase the oxygen consumption .Main several enzymes are generated through reactive oxygen species such as (NADPH) oxidase. When oxygen is reduce in superoxide anion by superoxide dismutase these anions are converted into hydrogen peroxide. Myelo – peroxide where active when activated monocytes are released cytokines.

KIDNEY CHORNIC DIESAES BY OXDAITVE STRESS:-
Mitochondria such a mainly involve in metabolic pathways ,ROS production ,Calcium and iron homeostasis and apoptosis.CKD patients in blunt mitochondrial reparative system its influence can function of cell and also diminish enzymatic activity of cellular respiratory chains and also damage lipids , protein .

AS A NATURAL DEFFANCE:-
ENDOGENOUS ANTI – OXIDANCE:
The maintenance of the redacting power depend upon the NADPH and the pentose phosphate pathway oxidative damage from low level on the endogeouns anti – oxidance other than production mitochondria

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