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Pat Steir (born 1940) is an American painter and printmaker. Her early work was loosely associated with Conceptual
Art and Minimalism, however, she is best known for her abstract dripped, splashed and poured “Waterfall” paintings,
which she started in the 1980s, and for her later site-specific wall drawings.
In the 1980s Steir developed a technique that involved applying paint exclusively by dripping and flinging it onto the
canvas.The pouring process also evokes comparison with the work of Jackson Pollock—but rather than painting on
the floor, Steir works from a ladder on unstretched canvas tacked to the wall, pouring and flinging paint, water, or
solvent from oversaturated brushes and allowing the fluid media to cascade down the length of the support. As she
has explained, “the paint itself makes the picture…. Gravity makes the image.”
Simple enough at first glance, but these paintings reward close observation: secondary colours emerge in the chaos,
cracks reveal layers beneath, near-transparent layers of oil paint glint in the changing light. In her Waterfall paintings,
Steir limits herself to controlling a few key variables: colour, pressure, the length of her lines, and the viscosity of the
turpentine and oil paint mix. She paints her canvasses vertically rather than on the floor, but comparisons to Jackson
Pollock still come easily. Steir sees things differently, she told Interview: “My work is non-objective, so what I’m really
trying to do is different than Pollock or the abstract expressionists, who were expressing; they were expressionists.”
Rudman, Matthew. “Pat Steir, Studio International.” Studio International – Visual Arts, Design and Architecture, www.studiointernational.com/index.php/pat-steir-review-dominique-levy-gallery-london.
The powerful art critic Clement Greenberg insisted that Pollock’s work represents a new kind of
authentic American art, a transformation of the art world’s and the success of Pollock. In a few
years, his gestures, lines, texture and composition became the subjects of his canvas. Number
One, 1950 (Lavender Mist) embodied the artistic breakthrough that Pollock achieved from 1947 to
1950. It was painted in an old barn renovation work room next to a small house on the eastern
end of Long Island, where Pollock lived and worked from 1945 on.
There is a saying in the course Unit2: To truly understand the societal implications of a graphic
artifact, you must dig deeper into the culture that has enabled its production, and, specifically, into
where the artifact originated from.
Pollock’s method was based on his early experiments with ceramics, glass, and dripping and
splashing paint on canvas. He spreaded a large canvas on the floor of his studio barn, almost
covering the space. Using house paint, he dripped, poured, and flung pigment from loaded brushes
and sticks while walking around it. This is totally different with Steir’s painting method.
No. 1 contains a lot of variety making the picture not boring or for a better word monotonous.
Pollock’s work and technique have seen him branded as “childish” or that his work is not “art.”
However, Pollock was still one of the leaders of abstract expressionism. His dripping technology
is revolutionary and pioneering. Not only Steir is inspired by his drip painting, but many other
artists, such as Ronnie Landfield, Roxy Paine and Zevs, are more or less affected by Pollock.
“National Gallery of Art.” Jackson Pollock, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, www.nga.gov/collection/highlights/pollock-number-1-1950-lavender-mist.html.
01
No 1 (1950)
by Jackson Pollock
Zevs – Liquidated Google, 2010 Ronnie Landfield – Garden of Delight, 1971
02
Evolution of Starbucks logo
The first-ever Starbucks logo designed in 1971 featured the topless ‘Siren’ with her double fishtail and navel fully visible. The
logo design comprised of a circular ring surrounding the mythical two-tail mermaid figure in a coffee brown color palette. As
many customers felt that the logo was sexually suggestive at the time, it gradually evolved to be no longer naked, but to
cover the body with hair. Later, Starbucks’ logo changed from full-body to half-body, and the lines were thicker and simpler.
The 2011 version directly removes the brand letters around the circle, which made this logo more simple and more accord
with modern people’s insight of aesthetic appreciation.
In history, the complexity, exquisiteness, and splendidness are always associated with nobleness,
which also always reminds people of status, honor and wealth.
We can observe that earlier logo designs were very complicated, often accompanied with complex
patterns and various serif fonts.
Since Bauhaus, the simplicity of modernism has been loved by everyone. The concept of “less is
more” has influenced many people, and even post-modernism, which later claimed to be “destroying”
modernist “rule”, was more or less affected. People notice that meaningless patterns and
complicated patterns are useless, and forms need to be based on functions.
Minimalist does not mean simple, it removes unnecessary things, and the things left behind can
either perfectly satisfy the user’s functional needs or give the user a kind of humanistic care or want
to be easily remembered by people. Just as Starbucks and apple did. This is why most well-known
brands’ logos have been gradually simplified in a long time. I think this trend will become more
apparent in the future.
The evolution of apple’s logo is also the same, from the
initial complexity to the modern simplicity. This seems
to be a feature of the evolution of all long-established
brand logos.
“Brand Stories: The Evolution of the Starbucks Brand.” RSS, 29 Sept. 2017, worksdesigngroup.com/brand-redesign-evolution-starbucks/.
“Showcase of Retro ; Vintage Style Logo Designs.” Spoon Graphics, 7 Jan. 2013, blog.spoongraphics.co.uk/articles/showcase-of-retro-vintage-style-logo-designs.
The weather project 03
by Olafur Eliasson
Shipwreck in the desert,
by Carl Haag (1886)
From ancient times to the present, there are countless artworks related to the topic of “weather and climate”. In these artworks, the biggest
change should be the form, from the original graphic works to the current installation arts as well as various videos and animations.
In The Weather Project, Olafur Eliasson takes this ubiquitous theme as the basis for exploring experience, mediation and representation. In
this installation, the representations of the sun and the sky dominate the vast space of the Turbine Hall. Subtle water mist penetrates into the
space as if creeping in from outside environment. Throughout the day, these mists have accumulated into a faint, cloud-like structure that then
dissipates in space. Take a look at the place where the fog on the head may escape, revealing that the ceiling of the turbine hall has disappeared
and replaced by the space below. At the far end of the hall is a giant semicircle made up of hundreds of single-frequency lights.
Repeated arcs at the top of the mirror create a dazzling splendid sphere that links real space with reflection.
In his project, he wants viewers as conscious spectators rather than a passive, awestruck audience. But first of all, he has to captivate us.
There is no doubt that installation art is more attractive than ordinary graphic artwork, and it also makes people feel more immersive.
This painting is also a climate-related artwork. The Middle Eastern
desert has been among the regions worst hit by desertification and
drought brought on by climate changes ever since the Dark Ages
Cold Period (300-700). Although the painting is very simple, there
are only a desert, a dead horse and a seemingly desperate traveler,
we can clearly feel the extreme hot weather and the bad environment.
However, this effect is far less than the shock that the installation
art brings to us.
New technologies always have tremendous effects on many different
aspects of culture. Eliasson’s impressive installation draws people’s
attention to the fundamental behaviors that perceive the world
around us. However, like the weather, our views have been constantly
changing. The dynamic changes in the composition of the transient
elements of the The Weather Project are parallel to the unpredictability
of the outside weather, despite human efforts and damage
remain uncontrollable.
Tate. “Olafur Eliasson the Weather Project: about the Installation.”
Tate, www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/exhibition/unilever-series/unilever-series-olafur-eliasson-weather-project-0.
“How Climatic Stress Possibly Shaped Early Islam and the History of theMiddle East”. n.d.,
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/omar-sayfo/islam-and-climate-change-_b_9721796.html. Accessed 13 May 2018.
04
“Ray-Ban – Travis Britton.” Travis Britton, travisbritton.com/project/ray-ban-colorize.
Ray-Ban ‘colorize’ by Cutwater
In 2009, Ray-Ban introduced color to their iconic Wayfarer frames. The frame was already regarded as an
icon, and the shoot involved complex makeup and lighting to create the effect.
It is obvious that Ray Ban ads pulls heavy inspiration from Andy Warhol’s portraits. That’s why as a
designer, it is crucial to understand not only the aesthetic forms of the past but also the ideologies that
shape them(Unit5). At this point, more innovative and creative works will come into being.
Photographed by Thomas Rusch, each model was painstakingly hand painted by talented makeup artist
Loni Baur for a modern Pop Art interpretation of an Andy Warhol art print. The idea was brought to life
through a series of films shot in the same graphic style. Online, an interactive website was created to
allow users to spray paint the color of their choice. Each color sprayed would release a series of characters
and actions that would animate in a fun way.
When it comes to Andy Warhol, we will immediately think of his famous works “Marilyn Diptych”. Like
everyone else in the US, Warhol was attracted to American movie stars like Monroe. He liked to use
images recognized by anyone in his artwork immediately. His aesthetic becomes the mechanical, mass
produced objects or images people saw every day.
Marilyn Diptych by Warhol
Silk-screening process was used while creating this painting. Warhol used woven nets and molds to convey paint to
canvas. The repeated images seemed similar at first glance, but further considered that the shadow is changing due to
the influence of oil and paint, which gived it a new feeling. However, in the Ray Ban ads, people used make-up, photography
and Photoshop methods to achieve the same effect as “Marilyn Diptych”.
As one of the most influential works of modern art, Warhol’s Marilyn Diptych made explicit references to the icon of pop
culture, Marilyn Monroe, to illustrate the art of pop art. Pop art originated in London and independent group, attracting
advertisements to depict materialism and popular culture in the United States. All mass cultures such as movies, music
and advertisements have become the core themes of pop art in Britain. Warhol was influenced by British pop artists
and began to pay attention to pop culture. Also, Warhol’s works showed that he was not only influenced by pop culture,
but also influenced by the art history, especially the popular art in New York.
Some people saw Warhol’s art as a threat. To this day Andy Warhol’s work is still very famous and amongst of the most
recognised. His art can be found printed on everything, from clothes to magazines to cars etc. With todays modern
software, Juxtaposition is simple to execute and easy to replicate. We find an almost endless amount of Warhol
(pop-art) inspired work which is excellent. Modern technology today could allow anyone to recreate anything Andy
Warhol ever had in mind or imagined.

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