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The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been cultivated and consumed for over 2,000 years, with the oldest dating of the domesticated bean being recorded at 7,800-9,600 calendar years before today (Hirst, 2018). The common bean is said to have been domesticated in the Andes mountains of Peru and the Lerma-Santiago basin of Mexico (Hirst, 2018). However, before P. vulgaris could be domesticated, its wild-type form originated in Mesoamerica, specifically, from Northern Mexico, where it then traveled down into Central American and again from Southern Peru to North-western Argentina (Bellucci et al. 2014). 11,000 years ago, both the Mesoamerican and Northern Argentinean species of bean diverged and vary significantly to this day (Hirst, 2018). In short, the Mesoamerican bean is generally much smaller than their Andean counterpart. Not only do these beans vary morphologically, but also in the type of phaseolin proteins found within each; in the Mesoamerican bean, 1 type of the major seed storage protein of the common bean is found, while a different type of the phaseolin protein is in the Andean bean (Hirst, 2018). Another distinctive defining factor of these two beans is color; white, navy, and black beans typically are from Mesoamerican descent, while dark/light red kidney, white kidney, and cranberry beans are all said to have been domesticated in the region between Peru and Argentina (Hirst, 2018).

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