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Thermal Analysis of Exhaust Gas of Compression Ignition Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel Blend
Vivek Shirsath, PG Student, Heat Power Engg. MCOERC, Nasik, India,
V.S. Kulkarni, Asst. Professor, Mechanical Department, MCOERC, Nasik, Maharashtra, India

Abstract— As we know India is developing country also it is one of the largest country in world by area and population. We largely depend upon foreign countries for supply of fuel. Therefore it is important to reduce energy crisis and problems arise due to pollution. Use of fossil fuels is continuously increasing due to use of vehicles and transportation. In India cities like Delhi are listed as most polluted cities in the world. Therefore it is important to find an alternative fuels to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel and reduce the emission emitted from fossil fuel which produces dangerous effect on human health and environment. In this paper the research work is carried to study emission and performance analysis of diesel- biodiesel blends on Variable compression ratio engine at different load and compression ratios and result obtained are compared with pure diesel at same load and compression ratio.

Index Terms—alternative fuel, biodiesel, compression ignition engine

I. INTRODUCTION
Thermal analysis of exhaust gas of internal combustion engine deals with heat energy which is wasted in our environment. From the fuel which we supply part of the energy is wasted into environment through exhaust gases. So object is check that what changes takes place in exhaust gas leaving the internal combustion engine in different working condition where fuels are supplied in different proportion using diesel and biodiesel blend. The rapid industrialization and transportation has increased the consumption of fossil fuel. Also burning of fossil fuels leads to greenhouse gases and global warming. Hence it is important to find an alternative fuels which could reduces the consumption of fossil fuels as well as reduces the pollution problem. In our country which is known as land of agriculture, fuels like biodiesel and ethanol can be best alternative fuels. Since biodiesel can be produced from non-edible oilseeds which can be grown on non cropped marginal lands and waste lands so it will not affect the production of other edible sources. The production of biodiesel from non-edible oilseeds will lead additional income to farmers. Also the ethanol is produced from sugarcane.
Neelesh Soni and Om Prakash in ‘thermal analysis of exhaust gas of compression ignition engine using diesel and

waste cooking oil biodiesel blend.’ stated that temperature of exhaust gas is gradually increasing with power and ranges from 110 °c for B20 to 295°c for B100 for Diesel, B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. Minimum temperature is taken at no load and maximum temperature taken is at 3000 watt. Fuel consumption ranges from 0.47 kg/hr (for diesel) to 1.34 kg/hr (for B100). They concluded that the temperature of exhaust is minimum (110°C) for B20 blend and maximum (295°C) for B100 for the power variation 0 watt to 3000 watt. Fuel consumption is minimum (0.47 kg/hr) for diesel and maximum (1.34 kg/hr) for B100 for the power variation 0 watt to 3000 watt.
S. Oberweis and T.T Al-Shemmeri in ‘Effect of Biodiesel blending on emissions and efficiency in a stationary diesel engine’ observed that there is a small difference in break specific fuel consumption for different blends at various engine loads. There is a steady increase of temperature with engine load, as expected. It is observed that all the Carbon dioxide CO2 emission of diesel fuels is higher than that of the blended fuels. It is observed that the Nitrogen oxide NOx emission increases directly with increased temperature. Increasing the amount of biodiesel has a proportional effect on the rate of NOx production. The biodiesel contribution increases the power output and the amount of heat release is higher for increased proportion of biodiesel. The efficiency of electrical output increases with increased engine load. The net utilization factor is significantly higher than the efficiency of the system under single generation mode. Adding the heat exchanger to the system to extract additional heat from the exhaust gases increases the overall efficiency of the system between 15% and 25%.
Suvendu mohanty and Dr. Om prakash in ‘Analysis of exhaust emission of internal combustion engine using biodiesel blend’ stated that the performance is slightly reduced while brake specific fuel consumption is increased when using biodiesels. Compared with conventional diesel, exhaust emissions of Carbon monoxide CO and Hydrocarbon HC are reduced while NOx emissions are increased with biodiesel and its blends with diesel. Higher temperature of burnt gases in biodiesel fuel helps in preventing condensation of higher hydrocarbon reducing unburnt HC. The higher cetane number of biodiesel results decrease in HC emission due to shorter ignition delay.
S.Gomasta et. al.in ‘An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol Blended Diesel Fuel on Engine Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine.’ Studied that the engine is found to run cooler across the range of fuel proportions and load conditions. The reason being, lower calorific value of the fuel used. As the load is increased the exhaust gas temperature is also increased which means the engine is consuming more amount of fuel.
II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The experiment is carried out at Apex innovations test setup.
Engine consists of single cylinder, four stroke, VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) Diesel engine connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. The compression ratio can be varied without interrupting the engine and without changing the combustion chamber geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement. Setup is provided with instruments for combustion pressure and crank-angle measurements. These signals are interfaced to computer through engine indicator for P??PV diagrams. The test set up also measures airflow, fuel flow, temperatures and load measurement. The set up has stand-alone panel box consisting of air box, two fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel measuring unit, transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements, process indicator and engine indicator. Rotameters are provided for cooling water and calorimeter water flow measurement. Lab view based Engine Performance Analysis software package “Enginesoft_9.0” is provided for on line performance evaluation. The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption.

Fig. 1.Experimental layout

T1= Inlet Temperature of jacket water
F1=Flow rate of fuel
T2=Outlet Temperature of jacket water
F2= Flow rate of air
T3= Inlet Temperature of water to Calorimeter
F3= Flow rate of engine cooling water
T4= Outlet Temperature of water from Calorimeter
F4= Flow rate of calorimeter cooling water
T5= Temperature of Exhaust Gas, before calorimeter
Wt=Load cell reading
T6= Temperature of Exhaust Gas, after calorimeter
N=Engine speed Tachometer reading

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Emission Characteristics
1) Hydrocarbon emission
Fig.2 shows variation of HC Vs load for blends Diesel 100 (D100), Diesel 80% +Castor Oil 5%+ Ethanol 15% (D80B5E15), Diesel 80% +Castor Oil 10%+ Ethanol 10% (D80B10E10), Diesel 80% +Soya Oil 5%+ Ethanol 15% (D80S5E15) and Diesel 80% +Soya Oil 10%+ Ethanol 10% (D80S10E10) at CR 16.It is observed that at low load emission of HC were less for all the blends compared to pure diesel but as load is increased HC emission for the blends D80B10E10, D80S5E15 and D80S10E10 are nearly equal to pure diesel at compression ratio 16 and blend D80B5E15 shows less HC emission than pure diesel at all loads.

Fig. 2. HC vs. LOAD at CR 16

Fig. 3 and fig. 4 shows variation of HC Vs load for blends D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15,D80S10E10 at CR 17.5 and 18.HC emission is decreasing with increase in compression ratio for diesel, It is observed that with increase in load, emission of HC for the blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15,D80S10E10 increases compared to pure diesel at compression ratio CR17.5 and 18 respectively.

Fig. 3. HC vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig. 4. HC vs. LOAD at CR 18

2) Carbon monoxide emission

Carbon monoxide is mainly produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Fig.5 and Fig.6 shows variation of CO Vs load for blends D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15,D80S10E10 at CR 16 and 17.5.It is observed that with increase in load, emission of CO for the blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15,D80S10E10, D80E15B5 are less compared to pure diesel at compression ratio 16 and 17.5 respectively.

Fig. 5. CO vs. LOAD at CR 16

Fig. 6. CO vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig.7 shows variation of CO Vs load for blends D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15,D80S10E10 at CR 18.It is observed that with increase in compression ratio CO emissions are decreasing. But for blends D80S5E15, D80S10E10 CO emissions at CR 18 are more as compared to pure diesel.
Fig. 7. CO vs. LOAD at CR 18

3) NOx emissions

There are different oxides of nitrogen which include NO, N2O, NO2 etc. therefore oxides of nitrogen are called as NOx, CO and HC are mostly produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel but NOx are formed due to complete combustion as high temperature are reached. NOx causes eye irritation, throat problem like cough and damaged lungs.

Fig.8, Fig.9, Fig.10 Fig.15 shows variation of NO Vs load for blends D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 at CR 16, 17.5 and 18 .It is observed that with increase in load emission of NO increases. For CR 16 NOx emissions for all blends are nearly equal to pure diesel but with increase in CR NOx emissions for blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10are more as compared to pure diesel.

Fig. 10 shows that for blends D80S5E15, D80S10E10 at compression ratio 18 NOx emissions are less as compared to pure diesel for load 6 and 9 kg but increases with load again.

Fig. 8. NOx vs. LOAD at CR 16
Fig. 9. NOx vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig. 10. NOx vs. LOAD at CR 18

4) Exhaust Gas Temperature

Fig. 11 shows the exhaust gas temperature distribution for D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 at CR 16. It shows that for blends D80B5E15, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 exhaust gas temperature is more as compare to pure diesel but blend D80B10E10 shows less exhaust gas temperature at all load variations.

Fig. 11. Exhaust Gas Temperature vs. LOAD at CR 16

Fig. 12 shows the exhaust gas variation for blends and pure diesel at CR 17.5, it shows that at low loads for blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10 exhaust gas temperature is less as compared to pure diesel for same load.
Fig. 12. Exhaust Gas Temperature vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig. 13 shows the exhaust gas temperature variation for blends and pure diesel at CR 18, it shows that exhaust gas temperature for blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 are less as compared to pure diesel.

Fig. 13. Exhaust Gas Temperature vs. LOAD at CR 18

B. Performance Characteristics
1) Brake power

Brake power is defined as the power available at output shaft and is also known as output power.Fig.14 shows variation of brake power with load for blends D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 at CR 16. It is observed that brake power for all blends is more as compared to pure diesel for CR 16. Fig.15 and fig. 16 shows brake power vs. load variation for CR 17.5 and 18. It is observed that for blends like D80B10E10, D80S5E15 at low loads gives slightly more brake power as compared to pure diesel but with increase in load brake power output is nearly equals to pure diesel output at CR 17.5. it also observed that with increase in load brake power also increases.

Fig. 14. BP vs. LOAD at CR 16

Fig. 15. BP vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig. 16. BP vs. LOAD at CR 18

2) Specific fuel consumption

Specific fuel consumption is define as the amount of fuel required to be supplied to engine to develop 1 KW of power per hour. Fig. 17 shows the specific fuel consumption in (kg/kWh) vs. load for D100, D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 at CR 16. Specific fuel consumption decreases with increase in load for all blends and pure diesel.

Fig. 17. SFC vs. LOAD at CR 16

Fig. 18 shows variation of SFC vs. Load at CR 17.5, here it is observed that specific fuel consumption for blends like D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 shows more fuel consumption as compared to pure diesel.

Fig. 19 shows variation of SFC vs. Load at CR 17.5, here it is observed that specific fuel consumption for blends like D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 shows more fuel consumption as compared to pure diesel, but with increase in load specific fuel consumption for all blends is nearly equal.

Fig. 18. SFC vs. LOAD at CR 17.5

Fig. 19. SFC vs. LOAD at CR 18

V. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
ANN software is used for a predictive model for a data processing system getting inspiration from biological neural system. The prediction on ANN is done by training on experimental data and validation by independent data. The objective of this study is to develop a neural network model for predicting engine performance parameters like Specific fuel consumption, Exhaust gas temperature, brake power, volumetric efficiency and other parameters. The Comparisons of the predicted results and experimental (actual) results are indicated in fig. 20. Correlation coefficients of 0.9926 is obtained for the like Specific fuel consumption, Exhaust gas temperature, brake power, volumetric efficiency. Therefore it is found that the correlation coefficients for all output are close to unity indicating the good accuracy of the developed model. Thus, this ANN model can be used to predict emission and performance parameter for diesel engine with adequate accuracy.

Fig. 20. Comparisons of the ANN-predicted results and experimental (actual) results

Fig. 21. Training curve for ANN

Fig. 22. Test curve for ANN

Fig. 23. Validation curve for ANN

VI. CONCLUSIONS
The experimental study is carried on single cylinder, four stroke diesel engines having variable compression ratio by using ethanol and biodiesel blends with diesel. The emission analysis and performance analysis is evaluated by running the engine at different compression ratios like 16, 17.5 and 18 by varying load. The emission parameters measured are CO, HC and NO performance parameters measured are brake power, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature. Based on the experimental studies, following are the observations found.
1) Blend D80B5E15 shows less HC emission than pure diesel at all loads for CR 16.
2) Emission of CO for the blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10, D80E15B5 are less compared to pure diesel at compression ratio 16 and 17.5 respectively.
3) Blend D80B10E10 shows less exhaust gas temperature at all load variations for CR 16 also exhaust gas temperature for blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 are less as compared to pure diesel for CR 18.
4) It is observed that brake power for blends D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 is more as compared to pure diesel for CR 16.
5) specific fuel consumption for blends like D80B5E15, D80B10E10, D80S5E15, D80S10E10 shows more fuel consumption as compared to pure diesel but with increase in load specific fuel consumption is nearly equal for al blend.

References
1 Neelesh Soni, Om Prakash, ‘Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend’, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, August 2013, pp.614-619.
2 S. Oberweis, T.T Al-Shemmeri, ‘Effect of Biodiesel blending on emissions and efficiency in a stationary diesel engine’, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality.
3 Suvendu Mohanty, Dr. Om prakash, ‘Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend’, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013.

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